Tuna species


Albacore Tuna
The albacore, Thunnus alalunga, This species is also called albacore fish, albacore tuna, albicore, longfin, albies, pigfish, tombo ahi, binnaga, Pacific albacore, German bonito , long-fin tuna, longfin tunny, or even just tuna. It is the only tuna species which may be marketed as "white meat tuna" . It is found in the open waters of all tropical and temperate oceans, and the Mediterranean Sea. Lengths range up to 140 cm (4.5 feet) and weights up to 45 kg (99 lb).

Method of catching
Methods of fishing include pole and line, long-line fishing, trolling , and some purse seining. It is also sought after by sport fishers. trolling with feathered jigs, spoons and lures; live and whole bait fishing with mullet, sardines, squid, herring, anchovies, sardines and other small fish.

Appearance 
The pectoral fins of the albacore are very long, as much as 50% of the total length. The dorsal spines are 8 to 10 in number, and well forward of the rays of the dorsal fin. The anterior spines are much longer, giving a concave outline to the spiny part of the dorsal fin.The most distinguishing feature of this member of the tuna and mackerel family is its very long pectoral fins that reach to a point beyond the anal fin. The pectoral fins of other adult tunas may also be moderately long, but never extend all the way to the anal fin.

Migrations
Albacore tuna is a highly migratory finfish species that roams three waters of the world. It is found in the open waters of all tropical and temperate oceans, and the Mediterranean Sea. North Pacific albacore, particularly juveniles (2-4 years old), typically begin their expansive migration in the spring and early summer in waters off Japan. They move into inshore waters off the U.S. Pacific coast by late summer, then spend late fall and winter in the western Pacific Ocean. The timing and distance of albacore tunas' migrations in a given year depend on oceanic conditions. Less is known about the movements of albacore in the South Pacific Ocean – juveniles move southward from the tropics when they are about a foot long, and then eastward to about 130°W. When the fish reach sexual maturity, they return to waters where they spawn.

Habitat
Temperature is a major factor in determining where Pacific albacore live. Juveniles are often found near oceanic fronts or temperate discontinuities, adults are found in depths of at least 1,250 feet. They will also explore deeper waters in search of prey. In Australia albacore tuna are present in east and south Australian waters and from east of Torres Strait to the north west shelf. The distribution of albacore is related to oxygen concentration and water temperature. Whilst albacore feed at the surface, they primarily live at the thermocline, which is the boundary separating warmer surface waters and deeper cooler waters. Mature albacore travel from temperate waters to the tropics but return to temperate waters after spawning. Albacore are generally caught in waters off New South Wales from September to December and in April and May.Geographic range , In tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans.

Spawning grounds
In tropical and subtropical waters in the Pacific centered around 20° North to 20° South latitude, with less activity towards the equator.

Spawning season
North Pacific albacore spawn between March and July in the western and central Pacific.

Reproduction
Females have 0.8 to 2.6 million eggs per spawning (100,000 eggs per 2.2 pounds of body weight). They broadcast the eggs in water near the surface, where they are externally fertilized. Reaches reproductive maturity At roughly 5 to 6 years old and 33.5 inches in length, Growth rate: Growth progresses more slowly with age. Eggs develop rapidly, hatching within 24 to 48 hours. Juveniles grow at an estimated 1¼ inches per month.

Diet
Albacore are top carnivores. They opportunistically prey on schooling stocks, such as sardine, anchovy, and squid. They eat an enormous amount of food to fuel their high metabolism, sometimes consuming as much as 25% of their own weight every day. Anglers often use trolling methods with artificial lures and live or dead baits to catch albacore.

Predators
Larger species of bill-fish, tuna, and sharks.

Trophic Level- 4.31
Level 4 Trophic Level : Carnivores which eat other carnivores are called tertiary consumers. -Near Threatened.

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Name
The Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) marketed as ahi, from its Hawaiian name ʻahi although the name ʻahi in Hawaiian also refers to the closely related bigeye tuna. The species name, albacares ("white meat") can lead to confusion. The tuna known as albacore in English, is a different species of tuna: Thunnus alalunga. However, yellowfin tuna is officially designated albacore in French, and is referred to as albacora by Portuguese fishermen. Also known as Allison tuna.

Method of catching
Using correct tuna bait and chumming, time of day/night, yellowfin tuna hooks and rigs, their preferred water temperature, yellow fin tuna lures, correct ocean depth, precise trolling speed. You can catch yellowfin tuna by a combination of bait techniques, either trolling live or dead baits behind the boat from between 4 – 12 knots. They love to feed on pilchards, small skipjack tuna, mackerel, and especially squid. Smaller skirted trolling lures in the size range 20cm , 25cm to 35cm marlin lures are kept just behind the whitewash of the boat, because the yellowfin will be attracted by the bubbles. Cubing in consistent 10m (22ft) intervals is a productive way to entice the fish to your lure.

Appearance
The second dorsal fin and the anal fin, as well as the finlets between those fins and the tail, are bright yellow, giving this fish its common name. The second dorsal and anal fins can be very long in mature specimens, reaching almost as far back as the tail and giving the appearance of sickles or scimitars. The main body is very dark metallic blue, changing to silver on the belly, which has about 20 vertical lines.

Habitat
Yellowfin tuna are epipelagic fish that inhabit the mixed surface layer of the ocean above the thermocline. Sonic tracking has found that although yellowfin tuna, mostly range in the top 100 meters (330 ft) of the water column and penetrate the thermocline relatively infrequently, they are capable of diving to considerable depths. An individual tagged in the Indian Ocean with an archival tag spent 85% of its time in depths shallower than 75 meters (246 ft) but was recorded as having made three dives to 578 m, 982 m and 1,160 meters (3,810 ft). Yellowfin tuna travel along vertical thermal gradients where warm water pushes against the edge of colder water.

Spawning season
Spawning throughout the tropical and equatorial waters of the major oceans. At higher latitudes, spawning is seasonal, with peaks in summer, may continue throughout the year at lower latitudes. Spawning records show Coast of Mexico and Central America, Revillagigedo Island spawning through out the year ,Eastern Atlantic from Feb-Sept, Gulf of Mexico from May-Jun, Hawaiian Islands May-Sept, Mauritanie coast Jun-Jul, Northeast coast of Australia Oct-Mar, Northwest Pacific Apr-Jul, Northwestern Coral Sea Oct-Jan, and West coast of Senegal from May-Sept.

Reproduction
It is likely that yellow-fin reach maturity at three years of age. Female yellow-fin are prolific egg layers capable of spawning every day, or second day, for several months. Their eggs are epipelagic which means they float on the surface.

Diet
Yellowfin tuna prey include other fish, pelagic crustaceans, and squid. Like all tunas their body shape is evolved for speed, enabling them to pursue and capture fast-moving bait fish such as flying fish,saury and mackerel. Schooling species such as myctophids or lantern fish and similar pelagic drift fish, anchovies and sardines are frequently taken. Large yellow-fin prey on smaller members of the tuna family such as frigate mackerel and skip jack tuna.

Predators
Yellowfin are preyed upon when young by other pelagic hunters, including larger tuna, seabirds and predatory fishes such as yahoo, shark and bill-fish. As they increase in size and speed, yellowfin become able to escape most of their predators. Adults are threatened only by the largest and fastest hunters, such as toothed whales, particularly the false killer whale, pelagic sharks such as the Mako, great white, cookie cutter shark and larger blue marlin and black marlin.

Trophic Level -4.34
Level 4: Carnivores which eat other carnivores are called tertiary consumers. Near Threatened

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Name
The bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus, is an important food fish and prized recreational game fish. It is a true tuna of the genus Thunnus, belonging to the wider mackerel family Scombridae. 

Appearance 
Bigeye tuna vary up to 250 centimetres (98 in) in length. Its maximum weight probably exceeds 400 pounds (180 kg), with the all-tackle angling record standing at 392 pounds (178 kg). They are large, deep-bodied, streamlined fish with large heads and eyes. The pectoral fins are very long, reaching back as far as the second dorsal fin. They display 13 or 14 dorsal spines. 

Location
Admiralty Is, Amer Samoa, Andaman Is, Angola AGO, Anguilla AIA, Antigua Barb, Argentina, Aruba, Ascension I. Australia, Azores Is, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Benin, Bermuda, Br Ind Oc Tr, Br Virgin Is, Brazil, Brunei Darsm, Cameroon, Canada, Canary Is, Cape Verde, Cayman Is, Chagos Is, China Main, Christmas I. Cocos Is, Colombia, Comoros, Congo Dem Rep, Congo Rep, Cook Is, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Curaçao I. Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Rp, East Timor, Easter I. Ecuador, Eq Guinea, Fiji, Fr Guiana, Fr Polynesia, Gabon, Galapagos Is, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guinea, GuineaBissau, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Japan, Johnston I. Kenya, Kermadec Is, Kiribati, Korea Rep, Liberia, Madagascar, Madeira Is, Malaysia,Maldives, Marquesas Is, Marshall Is, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Midway Is, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, N Marianas, Namibia, Nauru, NethAntilles, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk I. Ogasawara Is, Oman, Pac Is Tr Tr, Pakistan, Palau, Papua N Guin, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Ryukyu Is, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Sao Tome Prn, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, St Helena, St Kitts Nev, St Vincent, Suriname, Tahiti, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad Tob, Tuamotu Is, Turkey, Turks Caicos, Tuvalu, Uruguay, US Minor Is, US Virgin Is, USA, Vanuatu,Venezuela, Viet Nam, 
Wake I. Wallis Fut I, West Sahara.

Migrations
Bigeye tuna are found in the open waters of all tropical and temperate oceans, but not the Mediterranean Sea. Satellite tagging showed that bigeye tuna often spend prolonged periods diving deep below the surface during the daytime, sometimes reaching 500 metres (1,600 ft). Bigeye have been tracked entering water as cold as 5 °C (41 °F). These movements are thought to be in response to vertical migrations of prey organisms in the deep scattering layer.

Habitat 
The bigeye forages in cold and oxygen-poor subsurface waters. Their blood extracts oxygen efficiently even in oxygen-poor conditions. Their vision functions well in low light conditions. The heart has an unusual ability to function effectively while foraging in cold subsurface water. Nonetheless, they must periodically return to warmer surface waters to warm up.

Spawning grounds/Season
Spawning takes place in June and July in the northwestern tropical Atlantic, and in January and February in the Gulf of Guinea, which is the only known Atlantic nursery area. Occur in areas where water temperatures range from 13°-29°C, but the optimum is between 17° and 22°C. Variation in occurrence is closely related to seasonal and climatic changes in surface temperature and thermocline. Juveniles and small adults school at the surface in mono-species groups or mixed with other tunas, may be associated with floating objects. Adults stay in deeper waters. Eggs and larvae are pelagic

Reproduction 
Dioecism fish where females and males are separate in gender ,external Fertilization, nonguarders
,open water/substratum egg scatterers , the bigeye tuna are multiple spawners that may spawn every 1 or 2 days over several months . They spawn over periods of the full moon and Spawn throughout the year in tropical waters. has a lifespan of up to 12 years, with sexual maturity at the age of four.

Diet 
Feed items include both epipelagic and mesopelagic species, with deep diving behaviour during the day thought to be related to the seeking of prey. diet consists of the following, skipjack tunaPorcupinefishpufferfish, pelagic shrimp, lanternfish, Lancetfish, Lovely Hatchetfish or Atlantic Silver Hatchetfish, Daggertooth, cutlassfish, Australian anchovy, Pomfret, Snipe eels, snake mackerels, hooked squid, octopi, hammerjaw, Barracudinas, Flying fish, ribbonfish, Boarfish, True dories, snaketooth fish, Driftfish. 

Predators 
Cookiecutter shark, killer whale, billfish, Atlantic blue marlin, sperm whales, beaked whales, dolphins. 

Edible
Meat is highly prized and processed into sashimi in Japan. Marketed mainly canned or frozen, but also sold fresh, Parasites are common in this fish and contains mercury, Pregnant woman are advised to not eat large quantities 

Trophic Level-4.49
Level 4: Carnivores which eat other carnivores are called tertiary consumers. Vulnerable 

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Name
The skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a medium-sized perciform fish in the tuna family, Scombridae. It is otherwise known as the aku, arctic bonitomushmouth, oceanic bonito, striped tuna, or victor fish. It grows up to 1 m (3 ft) in length. 
Location
Algeria, Amer Samoa, Andaman Is, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua Barb, Argentina, Aruba, Ascension I. Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Br Ind Oc Tr, Br Virgin Is, Brazil, Brunei Darsm, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Canary Is, Cape Verde, Cayman Is, Chagos Is, Chile, China Main, Christmas I. Cocos Is, Colombia, Comoros, Congo Dem Rep, Congo Rep, Cook Is, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Curaçao I. Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Rp, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eq Guinea, Fiji, Fr Guiana, Fr Polynesia, FranceGabon, Galapagos Island, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, GuineaBissau, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Johnston I. Jordan, Kenya, Kermadec Is, Kiribati, Korea Rep, Liberia, Madagascar, Madeira Is, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Marquesas Is, Marshall Is, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Monaco, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, N Marianas, Namibia, Nauru, NethAntilles, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk I. Norway, Ogasawara Is, Oman, Pac Is Tr Tr, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua N Guin, PeruPhilippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Ryukyu Is, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Sao Tome Prn, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovenia, Solomon Is, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, St Helena, St Kitts Nev, St Vincent, Suriname, Sweden, Syria, Tahiti, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad Tob, Tuamotu Is, Turkey, Turks Caicos , Tuvalu, UK, UK Engld Wal, Untd Arab Em, Uruguay, US Minor Is, US Virgin Is, USA, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Wake I. Wallis Fut I, Yemen.

Diet
Favored fishes in their diet are herrings, mackerels, lanternfish, flying fish, squid, butterfish, sand launce, sardines, needlefish, jellyfish and crustaceans. cannibalism is common.


Habitat
The skipjack tuna is an epipelagic fish, occurring in waters ranging in temperature from 58-86°F (14.7 to 30°C) Exhibit a strong tendency to school into shoals based upon their size in surface waters with birds, drifting objects, sharks, whales and may show a characteristic behavior like jumping, feeding, foaming during the day, diving down to depths of ~260m during the night.
Spawning Season/Ground
Larvae restricted to waters with surface temperatures of 15°C to 30°C. Maturing at 2 to 3 years old (40cm in length) Eggs and larvae are pelagic, Skipjack can have a life span as long as 8 - 12 years.

Appearance
The Skipjack Tuna is characterized by its "tuna-like" appearance that is dark blue on its back and silver on its flank and belly. It has a series of 4 - 6 horizontal-diagonal stripes along its upper sides, and no spots between the pelvic and pectoral fins. The Skipjack Tuna might be confused with the Black Skipjack, Eurhynnus lineatus which has 5 - 6 horizontal stripes along its upper sides but has distinguishing black spots or botches between its pelvic and pectoral fins; the Striped Bonito, Sarda orientalis 8 - 11 broken horizontal stripes along its sides, and no spots, and the Eastern Pacific Bonito, Sarda chilensis 5 - 6 oblique dark stripes on upper back and no spots.

Predators
Silvertip sharks, Whaler sharks, Dolphinfish, Black Marlin, Atlantic blue marlin, Shortfin Mako shark, Wahoo, Indo-Pacific blue marlin.


Method of catching
Also taken by trolling on light tackle using plugs, spoons, feathers, or strip bait Trolling at speeds of around 3-5 mph in the open ocean waters with skirted lures is the most productive method with blue, pink, white or orange small skirt lures works all the time also throwing small live baitfish near a floating object in the water causes them to go into a feeding frenzy.

Edible
It is an important commercial and game fish, usually caught using purse seine nets, and is sold fresh, frozen, canned, dried, salted, and smoked. Skipjack is considered to have "moderate" mercury contamination. As a result, pregnant women are advised against eating large quantities.

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