Jack Species


Name
Green jackCaranx caballus (also known as the horse jack)

Location 
The green jack is distributed throughout the coastal waters of the tropical and subtropical waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Its range extends along the coast of the Americas from Santa Cruz IslandCalifornia, south through Mexico and Central America, and down to Peru. The species also inhabits a number of offshore islands including the Galápagos Islands and recently, Hawaii. It leads both a demersal and pelagic lifestyle, forming large schools which can move large distances offshore, allowing them to reach offshore island as well as deep isolated sea-mounts.

Habitat 
The green jack inhabits a variety of continental shelf environments to a depth of at least 100 m, predominantly inshore reef systems, as well as shallow baysestuaries and lagoons. The green jack is a gregarious species, forming moderately large schools of fish in the marine environment. Smaller shoals are formed by juveniles when entering shallower waters including bays and estuaries

Appearance
The green jack is distinguished from other similar carangid species by a number of features including gill raker and lateral line scale counts, and the presence of an transparent eyelids. The green jack has a greenish blue colour overall, with an olive green to dark blue back and a golden to grey coloured belly, with a distinct back blotch on the outer edge of the gill cover. Individuals in schools often have a very evident pearly white marking near this black blotch. Juveniles have 7 dark vertical stripes on their flanks which fade with age. The caudal fin is grey with dark tips, with all other fins being light grey to glassy in colour. The green jack is internally and externally similar to a number of other carangids, having an elongated, moderately compressed spindle body with dorsal and anal profiles of approximately equal curvature and a slightly pointed snout. The section behind the eye is covered by a moderately well developed transparent eyelid, and the back-length extremity of the jaw is vertically under the center of the eye. The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first consisting of 8 spines and the second of 1 spine followed by 22 to 25 soft rays. The anal fin consists of 2 forwardly detached spines followed by 1 spine and 16 to 21 soft rays. The lobes of both the second dorsal and anal fin are slightly elongated and almost entirely covered in small scales, but are still much shorter than the head length. The lateral line has a pronounced but short anterior arch, with the curved section intersecting the straight section below the spine of the second dorsal fin. The straight section contains 0 to 7 scales followed by 42 to 56 very strong scutes, and 43 to 47 scales overall. The chest is completely scaled. The upper jaw contains an irregular series of outer canines with an inner band of small, regularly spaced teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single band of small teeth. The species has 40 to 45 gill rakers in total; 10 to 15 on the upper limb and 27 to 30 on the lower limb.

Diet
Predatory in nature, taking small fish, squidcrabsshrimps and other crustaceans, either in midwater or on the sea floor. Green jack are also known to consume zooplankton, especially in deeper waters around islands and seamounts where the plankton is aggregated.

Method of catching 
The green jack is also of modest interest to anglers in the region, with the species a good light tackle fish. Lures are most often used on the species, including jigs, spoons and squids, although baits of live fish and strip baits work equally as well.

Edible 
 Species is considered to be a fair to poor quality table fish.

Spawning ground/season 
Spawning appears to take place from May to October, with peaks in June and October. studies indicate that both the females and males grow at the same rate; 16.82 cm after the first year, 27.78 after the second, 34.66 after the third, with modelling suggesting the maximum length of 55 cm is reached at around 8 years of age. Most individuals reach sexual maturity before they reach 38 cm in length. Juveniles tend to move to protected waters such as estuaries, moving to deeper waters at adulthood.Studies off the coast of Mexico have found the larvae tend to occur in deeper waters than most other carangid larvae inhabit, from 90 to 100 m depth, possibly indicating spawning occurs in deeper waters.

Predators
It is known to be taken by larger fish such as marlin and sharks.


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Name
The blue runnerCaranx crysos (also known as the bluestripe jackEgyptian scadhardtail jack and hardnose)

Location 
The blue runner is distributed across the Atlantic Ocean, ranging from Brazil to Canada in the western Atlantic and from Angola to Great Britain including the Mediterranean in the east Atlantic, ranging widely along both the eastern American coastline and the western African and European coastlines. In the western Atlantic, the species southernmost record comes from Maceio, Brazil, with the species ranging north along the central American coastline, and throughout the Caribbean and the numerous cluster of Islands throughout. From the Gulf of Mexico its distribution extends north along the U.S. coast and as far north as Nova Scotia in Canada, also taking in several north-west Atlantic islands. Present on several central Atlantic islands, making its distribution Atlantic-wide.In the eastern Atlantic the southernmost record is from Angola, along the west African coast up to Morocco and into the Mediterranean Sea, having been recorded from nearly all the countries on its shores. The species is rarely found north of Portugal in the north east Atlantic, although records do exist of isolated catches from Madeira Island and GaliciaSpain. The furthest north it has been reported is southern Great Britain.

Habitat 
Blue runner are easily attracted to any large underwater or floating device, either natural or man made. Several studies have shown the species congregates around floating buoy-like fish aggregating devices (FADs), both in shallower waters, as well as in extremely deep (2500 m) waters, indicating the species may move around pelagically. Juvenile fish are also known to inhabit the shallow waters of inshore lagoons, taking refuge around mangroves or in sea-grass amongst coral reef patches. Fishermen have also taken the species in the Mississippi delta, indicating it can tolerate lower salinities in almost estuarine environments.



Appearance
The blue runner's colour varies from bluish green to olive green dorsally, becoming silvery grey to brassy below. Juveniles often have 7 dark vertical bands on their body. Fin colour also varies, with all fins ranging from to dusky or glossy to olive green. The species also has a dusky spot which may not be distinct on the upper gill flap. Having an elongated, moderately compressed body with dorsal and anal of approximately equal convexity and a slightly pointed snout. The posterior section of the eye is covered by a moderately well developed transparent eyelids, and the posterior extremity of the jaw is vertically under the center of the eye. The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first consisting of 8 spines and the second of 1 spine followed by 22 to 25 soft rays. The anal fin consists of 2 forwardly detached spines followed by 1 spine and 19 to 21 soft rays. The pectoral fins become more falcate with age, having 21 to 23 rays, and are slightly longer than the head. The lateral line has a pronounced but short frontal arch, with the curved section intersecting the straight section below the spine of the second dorsal fin. The straight section contains 0 to 7 scales followed by 46 to 56 very strong scutes, with bilateral keels present on the caudal peduncle. There are a total of 86 to 98 scales and scutes over the entire lateral line. The chest is completely scaled. The upper jaw contains an irregular series of outer canines with an inner band of small, regularly spaced teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single band of small teeth. The species has 35 to 42 gill rakers in total; 10 to 14 on the upper limb and 25 to 28 on the lower limb, with this the only feature that differs between the Blue runner and Green jack. There are 25 vertebrae present.

Diet
Is a predator which primarily takes small benthic fishes as prey in inshore waters. A Puerto Rican study found the species supplements its fish dominated diet with crabsshrimpscopepods family of zoo-plankton and other small crustaceans, blue runner take shrimp, prawnslobstersjellyfish and other small invertebrates. The diet of juveniles is more zoo-plankton dominated, with young fish predominantly taking cyclopoid and calanoid copepods, and gradually moving to a more fish based diet.

Method of catching 
 Taking both fish baits, as well a variety of lures including hard bodied bibbed lures, spoons, metal jigs and soft plastic jigs. The species is also a target for light tackle saltwater fly fishermen, and can push 6-weight fly tackle to its limits.

Edible 
It is considered to be a fairly low quality table fish, and larger specimens are known to carry the ciguatera toxin in their flesh, with several cases reported from the Virgin Islands.

Spawning ground/season 
 The blue runner is moderately large in size, growing to a maximum confirmed length of 70 cm and 5.05 kg in weight, but is more common at lengths less than 35 cm, studies occurring in the west Atlantic. Research in northwest Florida found a length at maturity of 267 mm, a study in Louisiana showed the species reaches sexual maturity at 247–267 mm in females and 225 mm in males, and in Jamaica lengths of 260 mm for males and 280 for females were estimated. Spawning appears to occur offshore year round Peak spawning season in the Gulf of Mexico occurs from June to August, with a secondary peak in spawning during October in northwest Florida. Elsewhere, peaks in larval abundance indicate spawning in the warmer summer months between January and August. Each female releases between 41,000 and 1,546,000 eggs on average, with larger fish producing more eggs. Both the eggs and larvae are pelagic.

Predator
The blue runner is used extensively as live bait for larger fish including billfishcobia and amberjack. 


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Name
The blacktip trevallyCaranx heberi (also known as the blacktip kingfish and yellowtail kingfish)

Location 
The blacktip trevally is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and West Pacific Oceans. In the western part of its range, the species ranges from South Africa and Madagascar north along the East African coast up to the Persian Gulf and Red Sea. Its distribution continues eastward through IndiaSouth East Asia and the Indonesian Archipelago. Its range extends south to northern Australia, north to Japan, and Fiji in the east.

Habitat 
The blacktip trevally is predominantly an inshore species, frequenting clean open coastal waters as an adult, with juveniles also found in large bays and estuaries. Adults are often found over moderately deep rocky reefs and pinnacles as well as open sandy areas.

Appearance
Compressed, rectangular body, with the dorsal profile much more curved than the bottom half profile, particularly anterior. The dorsal fin is in two distinct sections; the first consisting of 8 spine and the second of 1 spine and 19 to 21 soft rays. The anal fin consists of 2 anteriorly detached spines followed by 1 spine and 15 to 17 soft rays. The ventral fin consists of 1 spine and 5 soft rays, while the caudal fin is strongly forked. The species lateral line is moderately arched anteriorly, with 50 to 60 scales in this section, while the straight section contains 0 to 4 scales and 30 to 40 strong scutes. The pattern of breast scales is variable, ranging from fully scaled to naked ventrally. The species has moderately well developed transparent eyelids, while its dentition consists of an outer row of widely-spaced canines and an inner band of villiform teeth in the upper jaw and a row of widely-spaced conical teeth on the lower jaw. The blacktip trevally has 24 to 27 gill rakers and 24 vertebraeThe blacktip trevally's colouration is distinctive, with the upper body being dark bronze to yellow green while the lower body fades to silvery white below. The caudal fin is bright to olive yellow, with the top half normally black to dark, giving the species its common name. Other fins range from bright yellow to dusky with little yellow at all. The species also lacks the dark spot on the gill cover margin that many related species possess.


Diet
The species is a benthopelagic predator, taking its prey from the sea floor and higher in the water column. Prey items include a variety of fish, inkfish, and crustaceans including shrimpsmantis shrimpscrabs and crayfish.

Method of catching 
The species is considered a good gamefish and can be taken by fish or squid baits as well as various patterns of lure and fly. When taken from the water, the fish often 'grunt' in similar manner to a young pig. The blacktip trevally is a large fish, growing to a maximum recorded size of 1 m in length and 12.5 kg in weight.

Edible 
They are considered an excellent table fish despite being known to be a host to parasitic infection in some regions.

Spawning ground/season 
They appear to be migratory, with South Africa recording influxes of the species in summer, while in India they arrive after the monsoons and continue their inhabitance through the cold months. Reproduction in the species is poorly understood, although observations indicate it spawns in the more tropical regions of its range, with sexual maturity reached at 50 cm.



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Name
The crevalle jackCaranx hippos (also known as the common jackblack-tailed trevallycouvalli jackblack cavalli and yellow cavalli)

Location 
The crevalle jack is distributed across the tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean, ranging from Nova Scotia, Canada to Uruguay in the west Atlantic and Portugal to Angola in the east Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea

Habitat 
Adults that move offshore generally do not leave continental shelf waters, however still penetrate to depths of 350 m, and possibly deeper. These individuals live on the outer shelf edges, sill reefs and upper slopes of the deep reef, and tend to be more solitary than juveniles. Adults have also been sighted around the large oil rig platforms throughout the Gulf of Mexico, where they use the man made structure like a reef to hunt prey. The larvae and young juveniles of the species live pelagically offshore along the continental shelf and slope, and are also known to congregate around oil platforms, as well as natural floating debris such as sargassum mats.The crevalle jack lives in both inshore and offshore habitats, with larger adults preferring deeper waters than juveniles. In the inshore environment, crevalle jack inhabit shallow flats, sandy bays, beachesseagrass beds, shallow reef complexes and lagoons, which may be open or landocked, and may be composites of the aforementioned environments. The species is also known to enter brackish waters with some individuals known to penetrate far upstream, however like most euryhaline species they generally do not penetrate very far inland. The salinity the species has been reported are from ranges from 0% to 49%, indicating the species can adapt to a wide range of waters, with temperatures below 9.0°C apparently being lethal to the fish.

Appearance
Elongated, moderately compressed body with the dorsal profile more convex than the bottom profile, particularly forward. The eye is covered by a well-developed transparent eyelid, and the posterior extremity of the jaw is vertically under or past the posterior margin of the eye. The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first consisting of 8 spines and the second of 1 spine followed by 19 to 21 soft rays. The anal fin consists of 2 forwardly detached spines followed by 1 spine and 16 or 17 soft rays. The pelvic fins contain 1 spine and 5 soft rays while the pectoral fins contain 20 or 21 soft rays. The caudal fin is strongly forked, and the pectoral fins are falcate, being longer than the length of the head. The lateral line has a pronounced and moderately long anterior arch, with the curved section intersecting the straight section midway below the second dorsal fin. The straight section contains 23 to 35 very strong scutes, with bilateral keels present on the caudal peduncle. The chest is devoid of scales with the exception of a small patch of scales in front of the pelvic fins. The upper jaw contains a series of strong outer canines with an inner band of smaller teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single row of teeth. The species has 35 to 42 gill rakers in total and there are 25 vertebrae present. The crevalle jack's colour ranges from brassy green to blue or bluish black dorsally, becoming silvery white or golden ventrally. A dark spot is present on the pectoral fin, with a similar dark to dusky spot present on the upper margin of the gill cover. Juveniles have around five dark vertical bands on their sides, with these fading at adulthood. The first dorsal fin, pectoral and pelvic fins range from white to dusky, occasionally with golden tinges throughout. The anal fin lobe is bright yellow, with the remainder of the fin ranging from golden to dusky, while the underside of the caudal peduncle often being yellow in adults. The caudal fin itself is also golden to dusky, with the lower lobe often brighter yellow than the upper, with both the lobes often having a black trailing edge.

Diet
Experiments suggest, the fish was presented with a range of size classes of the same prey species, neotropical silversides, with the results showing that crevalle jack prefer to take the smallest size class possible, The crevalle jack is a powerful predatory fish which predominantly takes other small fishes as prey at all stages of its life, with various invertebrates generally the remainder of the diet,consisting of various prawnsshrimpscrabsmolluscs and mantis shrimp. The types of fish taken varied throughout the range, with members of Atlantic herringsea breams and porgies, sheepsheadscup, and red sea bream, Carangidae and Cutlassfish all taken in variable amounts, usually with members of one family dominating the local diet.

Method of catching 
The fish take both live and cut baits as well as a variety of artificial lures; however when the fish are in feeding mode, they rarely refuse anything they are offered. Popular baits include both live fish such as mullet and Menhaden, also known as mossbunker, bunker and pogy, as well as dead or strip baits consisting of fish, squid or prawns. Crevalle jack readily accept any style of lure including hard bodied spoons, jigs, plugs and poppers as well as flies and soft rubber lures. There is some evidence based on long term observations that the species favours yellow coloured lures over all others. Tackle is often kept quite light, however heavy monofilament leaders are employed to prevent the fish's teeth abrading the line.

Edible 
The flesh is very red and dark due to the red muscle of the fish, which makes it somewhat coarse and poor tasting. When pulled from the water this fish snorts in what many people describe as "a pig-like" fashion. The crevalle jack has been implicated in several cases of ciguatera poisoning, although appears less likely to be a carrier than the horse-eye jack.


Spawning ground/season 
The crevalle jack reaches maturity at 55 cm in males and 66 cm in females, with spawning taking place year round. Evidence from laboratory studies indicates crevalle jack are able to coordinate their spawning aggregations over coral reefs based on the release of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) from the reef. DMSP is a naturally occurring chemical produced by marine algae and to a lesser extent corals and their symbiotic zooxanthellae. Field studies have also shown the species increases in abundance with increased levels of DMSP over coral reefs.

Predators 
 The crevalle jack is also an important prey species itself, taken by larger fish such as billfish and sharks,


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Name
The giant trevallyCaranx ignobilis (also known as the giant kingfishlowly trevallybarrier trevallyulua, or GT)

Location 
The giant trevally is abundant in the central Indo-Pacific region, found throughout all the archipelagos and offshore islands including Indonesia, Philippines and Solomon Islands. Along continental Asia, the species has been recorded from Malaysia to Vietnam, but not China. Despite this, its offshore range does extend north to Hong KongTaiwan and southern Japan. In the south, the species reaches as far south as New South Wales in Australia and even to the northern tip of New Zealand in the southern Pacific. Its distribution continues throughout the western Pacific including TongaWestern Samoa and Polynesia, with its westernmost limits known to be the Pitcairn and Hawaiian Islands. The giant trevally is widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging along the coasts of three continents and many hundreds of smaller islands and archipelagos (group of Islands). In the Indian Ocean, the species easternmost range is the coast of continental Africa, being distributed from the southern tip of South Africa north along the east African coastline to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. The giant trevally's range extends eastwards along the Asian coastline including PakistanIndia and into South East Asia, the Indonesian Archipelago and northern Australia. The southernmost record from the west coast of Australia comes from Rottnest Island, not far offshore from the capital city of Perth. Elsewhere in the Indian Ocean, the species has been recorded from hundreds of small island groups including the MaldivesSeychellesMadagascar and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

Habitat 
 It is a semi-pelagic fish known to spend time throughout the water column, but is mostly near the sea floor in nature. The species is most common in shallow coastal waters in a number of environments including coral and rocky reefs and shorefaces, lagoons, embayments, tidal flats and channels. They commonly move between reef patches, often over large expanses of deeper sand and mud bottoms between the reefs. Older individuals tend to move into deeper seaward reefs, submerged rock shelfs or sand bank and drop-offs away from the protection of fringing reefs, often to depths greater than 80 m. The species has a wide salinity tolerance, as evident from the ranges juvenile and sub-adult fish in South African estuaries have been recorded from; 0.5 to 38 % with other studies also showing tolerance levels of less than 1 %. In these estuaries, the giant trevally is known from both highly turbid, dirty water to clean, high visibility waters, however in most cases the species prefers the turbid waters.

Appearance
 Moderately compressed body with the dorsal profile more convex than the lower half of the profile, particularly anteriorly. The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first consisting of 8 spines and the second of 1 spine followed by 18 to 21 soft rays. The anal fin consists of 2 frontal detached spines followed by 1 spine and 15 to 17 soft rays. The pelvic fins contain 1 spine and 19 to 21 soft rays. The caudal fin is strongly forked, and the pectoral fins are falcate, being longer than the length of the head. The lateral line has a pronounced and moderately long anterior arch, with the curved section intersecting the straight section below the lobe of the second dorsal fin. The curved section of the lateral line contains 58-64 scales while the straight section contains 0 to 4 scales and 26 to 38 very strong scutes. The chest is devoid of scales with the exception of a small patch of scales in front of the pelvic fins. The upper jaw contains a series of strong outer canines with an inner band of smaller teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single row of conical teeth. The species has 20 to 24 gill rakers in total and there are 24 vertebrae present. The eye is covered by a moderately well developed transparent eyelid, and the posterior extremity of the jaw is vertically under or just past the posterior margin of the pupil. The eye of the giant trevally has a horizontal 'streak' in which a mass of nerve cells and photoreceptor cell densities are markedly greater than the rest of the eye. It is believed this allows the fish to gain a panoramic view of its surroundings.The giant trevally is the largest member of the genus Caranx, and the fifth largest member of the family Carangidae, with a recorded maximum length of 170 cm and a weight of 80 kg. Specimens this size are very rare, with the species only occasionally seen at lengths greater than 80 cm. It appears the Hawaiian Islands contain the largest individuals, where indivduals over 100 lbs are common. At sizes less than 50 cm, the giant trevally is a silvery-grey fish, with the head and upper body slightly darker in both sexes. Fish greater than 50 cm show a difference between males and females as seen in birds in their colouration, with males having a dusky to jet black body, while females are a much lighter coloured silvery grey. Individuals with a darker dorsal colouration often also display striking silvery series of ridges and markings on the upper part of their body, particularly their back. Black dots of a few millimeters in diameter may also be found scattered all over the body, although the coverage of these dots varies between widespread to none at all. All the fins are generally light grey to black, although fish taken from turbid waters often have yellowish fins, with the anal fin being the brightest. The leading edge and tips of the anal and dorsal fins are generally lighter in colour than the main fin. There is no black spot on the gill cover. Traces of broad cross-bands on the fish's sides are occasionally seen after death.

Diet
 The opportunistic nature of giant trevally has also been made evident by studies on the mortality rate of undersized or egg-bearing lobsters released from traps at the water's surface in the Hawaiian Islands, individuals often seizing a lobster before it could sink to the seafloor after being released, or attacking before the lobster moves into a defensive position. Some bolder large individuals are even known to eat the lobster head first when its in a defensive stance. A powerful predatory fish, and is an apex predator in most environments; from the estuaries it inhabits as a juvenile to the outer reefs and atolls it patrols as an adult. Off South Africa it is most active during the day, especially at dawn and dusk, while off Zanzibar and Hong Kong it is said to be nocturnal in its habits. In all but one study (which was of juveniles), the giant trevally dominantly takes other fish, with various crustaceanscephalopods and occasionally molluscs making the remainder of the diet. In Hawaii the species has a predominantly fish based diet consisting of Parrot fish and wrasse, with crustaceans, including lobsters, and cephalopods (squid and octopus) making up the remaining portion of the diet, but the presence of squid and the schooling Mackerel scad indicates exploitation of more open-water habitats as well. Off Africa the diet is similar, consisting mostly of fish including eels, with minor squid, octopus, mantis shrimps, lobsters and other crustaceans. Younger fish inside Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii showed the only instance when crustaceans were preferred over fish,mantis shrimpshrimps and crabs were the most common prey taken at 89% of stomach content by volume, with fish, mostly Blennies, making up only 7% of the stomach contents. Estuarine fish in both Hawaii and Australia have mostly fish-based diets, with crustaceans such as prawns and crustaceans with no carapace also of importance, and are known to take more novel prey such as spiders and insects in these habitats. There have also been reports of juvenile turtles and dolphins being found within the stomach contents of larger giant trevally.

Method of catching 
Considered one of the top gamefish of the Indo-Pacific region, having outstanding strength, speed and endurance once hooked. It can be taken by many methods, including baits of cut or live fish and squid, as well as a wide array of lures. The species is commonly taken on bibbed plugs, minnows, spoons, jigs and poppers as well as soft plastic lures and saltwater flies. In recent years, the development of both jigging and surface-popping techniques have seen the giant trevally become an extremely popular candidate for catch and release.

Edible 
The species edibility has been rated from poor to excellent by different authors, although there are numerous reports of ciguatera poisoning from the species. The authors argued that based on this test the flesh of giant trevally was safe to consume. However analysis of case studies in which ciguatera poisoning was reported after eating the fish suggested that an accumulative effect occurs with repeated consumption; and also that tests like the one outlined above are not reliable, as the toxin appears to be distributed haphazardly throughout each fish. Since 1990, giant trevally taken from the main Hawaiian islands have been blocked from sale by auction internationally due to concerns over liability from ciguatera poisoning.

Spawning ground/season 
 Spawning occurs during the warmer months in most locations, although the exact dates differ by location. In southern Africa this occurs between July to March, with a peak between November and March, in the Philippines between December and January with a lesser peak during at June, and in Hawaii between April and November with a major peak during May to August. Lunar cycles are also known to control the spawning events, with large schools forming in certain locations at specific phases of the moon in Hawaii and the Solomon Islands. Locations for spawning include reefs, the reef channels and offshore banks. Sampling of schools prior to spawning suggests the fish segregate into schools of only one sex, although the details of this are still unclear. Observations in the natural habitat found spawning occurred during the day immediately after and just before the change of tide when there were no currents. Giant trevally gathered in schools of over 100 individuals, although ripe individuals occurred slightly deeper around 2 to 3 m above the seabed in groups of 3 to 4, with one silver female being chased by several black males. Eventually a pair would sink down to a sandy bottom, where eggs and sperm were released. The fish then diverged and swum away. It appears that that each individual spawns more than once in each period, with only part of the gonads ripe in spawners. potential reproductive capacity of an individual is not known, although females are known to release several thousand eggs on capture during the spawning process. Eggs are described as pelagic and transparent in nature.



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Name
Horse-eye JackCaranx latus, also known as the Big-eye jack

Location 
Horse-eye jack are commonly found in the subtropical Atlantic ocean from Bermuda and the northern Gulf of Mexico south to Rio de Janeiro. In the Eastern Atlantic, they are found from St. Paul's Rocks to Ascension Island and, rarely, the Gulf of Guinea.

Habitat 
They can be found on reefs and off shore rigsJuveniles can be found close to shore along sandy and muddy bottoms. Horse-eye jack are known to penetrate brackish water and can live in the mouths of some rivers. They are typically found in salt water up to 140 m in depth.

Appearance
The Horse-eye jack, known for its proportionally large eyes, commonly has 8-9 spines on its dorsal fin and 20-22 dorsal rays. The anal fin contains 2-3 spines and 16-17 rays. The pectoral fins are without spots although they can may have a spot on their gill covers. Their scutes are dark and color and can be found on the tail of the fish. The caudal fin of a Horse-eye jack is bright yellow, while the Crevalle jack's caudal fin has a slightly darker yellow tinge. Young individuals have large, dark bars on their bodies.

Diet
Horse-eye jack are known to feed on smaller fish and on many invertebrates such as shrimp and crab.

Method of catching 
Artificial lures and live baits.  

Edible 
 Variably considered a terrible or excellent food fish, although several cases of ciguatera poisoning have been attributed to the species.



Spawning ground/season 
 Observed on numerous occasions pair courtship in horse-eye jack (C. latus) in schools exceeding 1000 fish, These species displayed extended pair courtship within and outside a large aggregation of conspecific fish as they swam along the edge of the reef drop-off.


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Name
The black jackCaranx lugubris (also known as the black trevallyblack kingfishcoal fish and black uluaa species of large marine fish in the jack family Carangidae.

Location 
Inhabiting the tropical and subtropical regions of the AtlanticPacific and Indian Oceans. In the Indian Ocean, they are found from Natal, South Africa in the west to northern Australia in the east. They are patchily distributed along the east African and Asian coastline in the Indian Ocean, The species is widely known from many Indian Ocean islands including the Seychelles, RéunionMauritius and Cargados Carajos In the Pacific Ocean, the black jack is known from parts of the Indonesian-Australian archipelago north to Japan, and through many of the Pacific Islands such as HawaiiNew Caledonia and Tonga. The species range in the eastern Pacific has been ranges from Mexico and the Revillagigedo Islands in the north to Costa Rica in the south. In the western Atlantic Ocean, black jack have been found from North Carolina in the U.S. south to Rio de Janero, with the species most common in the Caribbean and the northern Gulf of Mexico. In the eastern Atlantic, the species has been reported from the AzoresMadeira, St. Paul's RocksAscension Island, and the Gulf of Guinea.

Habitat 
The black jack is a bottom swimmer species rarely found in shallow inshore waters, preferring deep, clear offshore waters of depths from 12 to 354 m. The species is most common in insular (volcanic) oceanic habitats and around offshore islands, rarely found close to the continents. The black jack inhabits deep reefs and reef drop offs, also being common around oceanic seamounts. It has been recorded from lagoons in the Solomon Islands.

Appearance
Rectangular, compressed form, with the dorsal profile more convex than the ventral profile. This curve is most pronounced at the head, which slopes steeply downwards, giving the head profile a very angular appearance. The profile between the snout and the back of the head is concave, with this indent centered near the nostrils. The mouth is fairly large compared to other members of its genus and the upper jaw extends to under the centre of the fish's eye. The upper jaw contains a series of strong outer canines with an inner band of smaller teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single row of widely spaced conical teeth. The dorsal fin of the black jack is in two sections; the first has 8 spines and the second 1 spine and 20 to 22 soft rays. The anal fin has 2 forward detached spines and 16 to 19 soft rays. The lobes of both the dorsal and anal fins are elongated. The pelvic fins contain 1 spine and 21 soft rays, while the pectoral fins are falcate and longer than the head. The lateral line has a pronounced and moderately long anterior arch, with the curved section intersecting the straight section below the lobe of the second dorsal fin. The curved section of the lateral line contains around 50 scales, while the straight section 26 to 32 strong scutes. The caudal peduncle also has paired bilateral keels. The chest is completely covered in scales, which like the rest of the body are small and cycloid in nature. The species has 23 to 30 gill rakers in total and there are 24 vertebrae present. The body of the black jack is a uniform olive to brown, grey and even black colour along the back that lightens to a grey-blue near the underside of the fish. The black jack's fins are grey to black, and the scutes are black. The upper limit of the operculum (gill cover) often has a small dark spot present, usually smaller than the pupil.


Diet
The diet of the species has been reported on two occasions; once from Easter Island in the south Pacific, where the diet consisted mainly of fish and crustaceans including mantis shrimp and isopods, and from Brazil, where a variety of fish, crustaceans and molluscs were taken. The black jack is also known to follow spinner dolphins to feed off their excrement's.

Method of catching 
Lures, live/dead prawn,shrimp,bait fish. 

Edible 
The species has a reputation as a gamefish, and is variably considered a terrible or excellent food fish, although several cases of ciguatera poisoning have been attributed to the species.

Spawning ground/season 
The black jack reaches sexual maturity at 34.6 cm in females and 38.2 cm in males. The timing of spawning is poorly known, with occurrences recorded in February, April, May and July to September. spawning taking place in the Caribbean.






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Name
The bluefin trevallyCaranx melampygus (also known as the bluefin jackbluefin kingfishbluefinned crevalleblue uluaomilu and spotted trevally)Two hybridization events in the species are known from Hawaii; the first with the giant trevally, Caranx ignobilis and the second with the bigeye trevallyCaranx sexfasciatus. Both were initially identified as hybrids by intermediate physical characteristics, and were later confirmed by DNA sequencing. It has been suggested these hybrids resulted from mixed species schooling during spawning periods.

Location
The bluefin trevally is abundant in the central Indo-Pacific region, found throughout all the archipelagos and offshore islands including Indonesia, Philippines and Solomon Islands. Along continental Asia, the species has been recorded from Malaysia to Vietnam and mainland China. Its offshore range does extend north to Hong KongTaiwan and southern Japan in the north western Pacific. In the south, the species reaches as far south as Sydney in Australia. Its distribution continues throughout the western Pacific including TongaWestern Samoa and Polynesia, and the Hawaiian Islands. The easternmost limit of the species distribution is the Meso american coastline between Mexico and Ecuador in the central eastern Pacific, including islands such as the Galapagos. The bluefin trevally is widely distributed, occupying the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging along the coasts of four continents and hundreds of smaller islands and archipelagos. In the Indian Ocean, the species eastern most range is the coast of continental Africa, being distributed from the southern tip of South Africa north along the east African coastline to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. The species' range extends eastwards along the Asian coastline including PakistanIndia and into South East Asia, the Indonesian Archipelago and northern Australia. The southernmost record from the west coast of Australia comes from Exmouth Gulf. Elsewhere in the Indian Ocean, the species has been recorded from hundreds of small island groups including the MaldivesSeychellesMadagascar and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

Habitat 
The bluefin trevally occurs in a wide range of inshore and offshore marine settings throughout its range, including estuarine waters. The species is known to move throughout the water column; however is most often observed on or near the bottom, swimming not far from the seabed. In the inshore environment, the species is present in almost all settings including bays, harbourscoral and rocky reefslagoons, sand flats and seagrass meadows. Juveniles and subadults are more common in these settings, and prefer these more protected environments, where they live in water to a minimum of around 2 m depth. Adults tend to prefer more exposed, deeper settings such as outer reef slopes, outlying atolls and bomboras, often near drop offs, with the species reported from depths up to 183 m. Adults often enter shallower channels, reefs and lagoons to feed at certain periods during the day. Bluefin trevally can tolerate fresh/salty waters between 6.0 to 35 %, and only occupy clear, low brackish waters.

Appearance
Rectangular, compressed body with the dorsal profile slightly more curved than the downward profile, particularly frontal. This slight curve leads to the species having a much more pointed snout than most other members of Caranx. The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first consisting of 8 spines and the second of 1 spine followed by 21 to 24 soft rays. The anal fin consists of 2 forward detached spines followed by 1 spine and 17 to 20 soft rays. The pelvic fins contain 1 spine and 20 soft rays. The caudal fin is strongly forked, and the pectoral fins are falcate, being longer than the length of the head. The lateral line has a pronounced and moderately long anterior arch, with the curved section intersecting the straight section below the lobe of the second dorsal fin. The curved section of the lateral line contains 55-70 scales while the straight section contains 0 to 10 scales followed by 27 to 42 strong scutes. The chest is completely covered in scales. The upper jaw contains a series of strong outer canines with an inner band of smaller teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single row of widely spaced conical teeth. The species has 25 to 29 gill rakers in total and there are 24 vertebrae present. The eye is covered by a moderately weakly developed transparent eyelid, and the posterior extremity of the jaw is vertically under or just past the anterior margin of the eye.

Diet
The bluefin trevally is a fast swimming, mainly predominant fish predator, which shows a wide range in hunting techniques. Two studies of adult fish in Hawaii found fish to be the dominant food type in the species, making up over 95% volume of the stomach contents by weight. Here the main fish selected were small reef dwellers, with fish from the families wrasses, goat-fish, parrot-fish and bigeye being the most common. Despite the preference of several families, bluefin trevally do take a very wide variety of fish in small amounts, including various species of eel. The species appears to have a preference for fish of a specific size, which depends on its own length and age.mainly octopus or squid and a wide array of crustaceans are also taken in smaller quantities, with shrimps, mantis shrimp and crabs being the most common. The diet of juveniles in Hawaiian and South African estuaries has also been determined, with these younger fish having a more crustacean based diet than the adults. In Hawaii, crustaceans make up 96% of the gut contents numerically, The species is reported to hunt during the day, particularly at dawn and dusk in most locations, however it is known to be a nocturnal feeder in South Africa.

Method of catching 
 The species readily accepts both bait and lures, with live fish or squid often used as bait and a variety of lures also used on the species. Lures may include poppers, plugs, spoons, jigs, soft plastic lures and even saltwater flies.

Edible 
It is considered to be a good to excellent food fish, however many cases of ciguatera poisoning have been attributed to the bluefin trevally.

Spawning ground/season 
 The bluefin trevally reproduces at different periods throughout its range, and reaches sexual maturity at 30–40 cm in length and around 2 years of age. It is a multiple spawner, capable of reproducing up to 8 times per year, releasing up to 6 million eggs per year in captivity. Growth is well studied, with the fish reaching 194 mm in its first year, 340 mm in the second and 456 mm in the third year. The period of the year over which spawning occurs is also variable by location, with African fish reproducing between September and March while in Hawaii this occurs between April and November, with a peak in May to July.


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Name
The brassy trevallyCaranx papuensis (also known as the brassy kingfishPapuan trevallytea-leaf trevally and green back trevally) is a species of large marine fish classified in the jack family, Carangidae.

Location 
Tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and West Pacific Oceans. Its range extends from South Africa and Madagascar north along the east African coast, Records resume from India eastward throughout South East Asia, the Indonesian Archipelago and numerous Indian Ocean and east Pacific island groups. The species is known from as far south as Sydney, Australia and as far north as the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. Its range extends eastward to the Marquesas Islands in the central Pacific.

Habitat 
The brassy trevally inhabits both inshore and offshore environments, predominantly inhabiting the seaward side of reef complexes or deep water pinnacles as an adult. Other habitats known include rock outcrops in sandy bays and lagoons, while juveniles are often found in tidal mangrove lined creeks in turbid waters. Juveniles are also found in estuaries throughout their range, occasionally extending to the upper reaches of rivers.

Appearance
rectangular body, with the dorsal profile more curved than the ventral profile, particularly on the front of the fish. The dorsal fin is in two distinct parts; the first consisting of 8 spine and the second of 1 spine and 21 to 23 soft rays. The anal fin consists of 2 anteriorly detached spines followed by 1 spine and 16 to 19 soft rays, while the pelvic fins have 1 spine followed by 19 to 20 soft rays. The lateral line is moderately arched anteriorly, with 53 to 61 scales in this section, while the straight section contains 0 to 3 scales and 31 to 39 strong scutes. The breast is naked ventrally with the exception of a small patch of scales before the pelvic fin. The species has weakly developed transparent eyelids, while its dentition consists of an outer row of widely-spaced canines and an inner band of villiform teeth in the upper jaw with a row of widely-spaced conical teeth on the lower jaw. The brassy trevally has 26 to 30 gill rakers and 24 vertebrae. The brassy trevally is a brassy to yellow greenish colour dorsally, becoming silvery white on the underside. Juveniles generally lack the brassy tinge, being silver all over. The species head and body above the lateral line is scattered with small black spots, with few spots occasionally much lower near the pectoral fins. These spots become more numerous with age. The species also has a conspicuous pale silvery-white spot with black margins shoulder near the upper gill cover. The fins are yellow to dusky with the exception of the caudal fin which has a dusky upper lobe and a dusky to yellow lower lobe and distinctive narrow white band on the trailing edge.

Diet
The brassy trevally is a predatory fish, traveling either individually or in small schools, where it hunts down a variety of prey including small fish, squidprawns and crabs. Studies on the species in Natal estuaries found juveniles take predominantly crustaceans as prey, switching to Blenny's, curtain  surgeon-fish, bat-fish, wrasse's and snapper as they mature.

Method of catching 
Considered a good gamefish and is often taken by various fish baits live/dead as well as lures and flies.

Edible 
considered to be an excellent table fish.

Spawning ground/season 
Nothing is known of its reproductive cycle, catch data indicates higher numbers occur in South Africa in summer The species grows to a known maximum length of 88 cm and a weight of at least 6.4 kg.



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Name
The bigeye trevallyCaranx sexfasciatus (also known as the bigeye jackgreat trevallysix-banded trevally and dusky jack) classified in the jack family Carangidae.

Location 
The bigeye trevally is distributed throughout the tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging from South Africa in the west to California and Ecuador in the east, including Australia to the south and Japan in the north.

Habitat 
It is predominantly an inshore fish, inhabiting reefs down to depths of around 100 m in both coastal zones and offshore islands, often venturing into estuaries and sandy bays as juveniles.

Appearance
The bigeye trevally is best distinguished by its colouration, having a dark second dorsal fin with a white tip on the lobe, and also possessing a small dark spot on the gill coverThe species is known to grow to a length of 120 cm and 18 kg.

Diet
Active at night, it feeds on a variety of fish, crustaceans, Ink-fish and other invertebrates. The fish is known to move from a more crustacean dominated diet as a juvenile to a nearly completely fish dominated diet as an adult.

Method of catching 
The species is also considered a good game fish, taken by lure, bait and spear throughout its range.

Edible 
 Fair to good table fish.

Spawning ground/season 
Sexual maturity is reached at 42 cm, with spawning occurring in large aggregations occurring at different periods throughout its range, generally between July and March.

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Name
The bar jackCaranx ruber (also known as the carbonerored jackblue-striped cavalla and passing jack) is a common species of inshore marine fish classified in the jack family

Location
St Helena, Anguilla, Antigua Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Cayman Is. Costa Rica, Cuba, Curaçao I. Dominica, Dominican Rp, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, St Kitts Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent Gren. Trinidad Tobago, Turks Caicos Is. USA, Virgin Is. (UK) Virgin Is. (US) Brazil, Colombia, Trindade I. Venezuela.
Habitat
The bar jack generally live in clear shallow water environments, predominantly around coral reefs to depths of around 60 ft. highly mobile, not lingering over one particular reef patch for very long, often moving between reefs over large expanses of sand. Bar jack often venture into lagoons from seaward
reefs, preferring to move over the sandy substrate while in these shallow waters, often forming shoals alongside barracuda, stingrays and sharks.

Appearance
The bar jack displays the typical body shape of most of the jacks, having an elongate, moderately deep and compressed form, with dorsal and ventral profiles of approximately equal curvature. The dorsal fin is divided into two sections, the first consisting of 8 spines while the second has 1 spine followed by 26 to 30 soft rays. The anal fin is composed of 2 anteriorly detached spines followed by 1 spine and 23 to 26 soft rays, with both the anal and soft dorsal fin lobes being slightly elongated. The pectoral fins are falcate and longer than the head, consisting of 19 to 21 soft rays. The lateral line is moderately arched anteriorly, and possesses 17 to 104 scales including 23 to 29 scutes posteriorly; also having bilateral paired caudal keels present. The chest is completely scaled, which easily distinguishes it from the similar crevalle jack, Caranx hippos. The snout is moderately pointed, with both the jaws containing narrow bands of villiform teeth, with the bands becoming wider anteriorly. The upper jaw also contains an outer row of enlarged recurved teeth. There are 10 to 14 upper limb gill rakers, and 31 to 38 on the lower limb and 24 vertebrae. The bar jack has a gray to grayish blue upper body with a silvery tint, which fades ventrally to a white belly. As indicated by their common name, adult bar jack have a horizontal stripe running along their back and through the lower lobe of the caudal fin. This bar is a golden brownish to blackish color, often with an electric blue bar running parallel immediately underneath it. All other fins are pale dusky to hyaline. Juveniles have up to 6 dark bands on their body and a darker lower caudal lobe than the upper lobe, foreshadowing the bar that develops at a later stage.

Diet
The fish species preferred by bar jack appear to be mostly small sand dwellers such as blennie sand gobies or small reef dwellers including wrasses, butterflyfish and filefish, crustations 

Method of Catching
Flies / Lures / Live bait 

Edible
It is considered to be a good food fish, however many recorded ciguatera cases are attributed to the species, with most cases reported on the island of St. Thomas traced to this single species.

Spawning ground/Season
Cuba indicate spawning occurs between March and August, with sexual maturity reaching at 26 cm



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3 comments:

  1. This was amazingly helpful, thank you!

    ReplyDelete
  2. I watch the explore.org cape fear shark cam, then come here when I need to identify a new fish. Great stuff, thanks.

    ReplyDelete