Marlin Species


Name
The Atlantic sailfish, Istiophorus albicans, is a species of marine fish in the family Istiophoridae of the order Perciformes. 

Location
Albania, Algeria, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua Barb, Argentina, Aruba, Ascension I. Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bosnia Herzg, Br Virgin Is, Brazil, Cameroon, Canary Is, Cape Verde, Cayman Is, Colombia, Congo, Congo Rep, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao I. Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Rp, Egypt, Eq Guinea, Fr Guiana, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Israel, Italy,Jamaica, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madeira Is, Malta, Martinique, Mauritania, Mexico, Monaco, Montserrat, Morocco, Namibia, NethAntilles, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russian Fed, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome Prn, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, St Helena, St Kitts Nev, St Vincent, Suriname, Syria, Togo, Trinidad Tob, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, Ukraine, Uruguay, US Virgin Is, USA, Venezuela, West Sahara.

Spawning ground/season
Spawning occurs from January to December in Guinea and Eastern Mediterranean Sea. April to September in Cuba and USA located offshore beyond the 100 fathom isobath

Reproduction
Dioecism as in females and males are separated by gender, external fertilization and are nonguarders of their eggs, open water/substratum egg scatterers, female may shed up to 4.8 million eggs in three batches during one spawning season, migratory in nature like salmon either following diet or reproductive needs, Sailfish grow extremely quickly, reaching a length of 4-5 feet in just a single year. They can live as long as 16 years

Habitat
Subtropical 21°C - 28°C, pelagic swimmers, found in Aegean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Benguela Current, Canary Current, Caribbean Sea, East Brazil Shelf, Guinea Current, Gulf of Mexico, Iberian Coastal, Mediterranean Sea, North Brazil Shelf, Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf, Patagonian Shelf, South Brazil Shelf, Southeast U.S. Continental Shelf.

Appearance
The sailfish has two dorsal and anal fins. Its first dorsal fin is large and fan-like, being much taller than the width of the body. This large fin runs most of the length of the body and provides the inspiration for the name, sailfish. The first anal fin is set far back on the body, and the second dorsal and anal fins roughly mirror one another in size and shape, with both being short in comparison to the sail-like first dorsal fin. The pectoral and pelvic fins are long with the pelvic fins almost twice as long and nearly reaching the origin of the first anal fin. The pelvic fins have one spine and multiple soft rays fused together, The sailfish bears a pair of grooves along each side of its body into which the pelvic fins can be depressed, greatly decreasing the fish’s drag through the water at speed. The strongly forked tail fin has double keels and caudal notches on the upper and lower surfaces, which act as hydrofoils, Body colour is variable depending upon the fish’s level of excitement. The body is dark blue dorsally and white with brown spots ventrally. About 20 vertical bars, each consisting of many light blue dots, are present on each side. The fins are all generally blackish blue. The anal fin base is white. The first dorsal fin (the sail) contains many small black dots, which are more common toward the anterior end of the fin, sailfish’s body is sparsely covered with embedded scales, each ending in a blunt point.

Diet
Greater argonaut, neon flying squid, red flying squid, akaika, and red squid, bar jack, Pacific crevalle jack, Blue runner, Longfin crevalle jack, Blacktip trevally, Crevalle jack, Giant trevally, Horse-eye jack, Black jack, Bluefin trevally, Brassy trevally, False scad, Round scad, Senegal jack, Bigeye trevally, Tille trevally, Cocinero, little tunny, halfbeaks, garfish, ballyhoos, pinfish, needlefish, largehead hairtail, flyingfish, surgeonfish, Atlantic pomfret or Ray's Bream, mahi-mahi or common dolphinfish, flying gurnard or Robin fish, porcupinefish, porcupinefish, snake mackerel, squirrelfish, snaketooth fish, mackerels, tunas, and bonitos, ribbonfish, blanket octopus, Sardines 

Predators
mahi-mahi or common dolphinfish, Brown Noddy, Wideawake Tern.

Edible 
Utilized fresh, smoked and frozen, also used for sashimi and sushi, eaten broiled and baked.

 __________________________________Traits___________________________________
One of the physical traits separating the Istiophorus platypterus to the Istiophorus albicans are the number of Anal spines and Pelvic spines of each individual, platypterus have 2 Anal spines and no Pelvic spines and albicans have no Anal spines and 1 Pelvic spine ,other than location that these fish are found in, there are studies shown that these two species are interbreeding and possibly a 3rd spieces will rise in the near future. unfortunately I could not identify the photo's of the given species in this post as the angle and/or quality is always disrupted in the photography , as you can see from the time spent on this post I'v fallen into the depths, if you can identify the photography in this post please mention it with reason, so I can rearrange the photo's 
thanks in advance.  
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Name
The Indo-Pacific sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, is a sailfish native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans

Location
Admiralty Is, Amer Samoa, Andaman Is, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Chagos Is, Chile, China Main, Christmas I. Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Easter I. Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Fiji, Fr Polynesia, Galapagos Is, Guam, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,Kiribati, Korea D P Rp, Korea Rep, Kuwait, Macau, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marquesas Is, Marshall Is, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Mozambique, Myanmar, N Marianas, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Oman, Pakistan,Palau, Panama, Papua N Guin, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Russian Fed, Ryukyu Is, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Is, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tahiti, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuamotu Is, Tuvalu, Untd Arab Em, US Virgin Is, USA, Vanuatu, Viet Nam, Wake I. Yemen.

Spawning grounds/seasons
Spawing occures from January to December in the tropical and sub tropical waters of the pacific ocean 

Reproduction
Dioecism as in males and females are seperated by gender,external fertilization and are nonguarders of their eggs ,openwater substratum egg scatterers ,spawning throughout the year in tropical and subtropical waters of the Pacific with peak spawning occurring in the respective local summer months. Spawning occurs with males and females swimming in pairs or with two or three males chasing a single female. The ripe ovarian eggs are about 0.85 mm in diameter and have a single oil globule, there are no structures on the vitalize membrane and the egg is transparent. Eggs shed from captured female in the Indian Ocean averaged 1.304 mm in diameter.

Habitat
 Oceanic epipelagic species usually found above the thermocline. Most densely distributed in waters close to coasts and islands, Indo-Pacific tropical and temperate waters, western Pacific, eastern Pacific, western Indian Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean. Entered Mediterranean Sea from Red sea via Suez Canal. Highly migratory species. retaining the usage of Istiophorus platypterus for the Indo-Pacific sailfish and Istiophorus albicans for the Atlantic sailfish in recognition of the differences between them. Most likely schools by size. Undergoes spawning migrations in the Pacific.

Appearance
It is dark blue on top with about 20 bluish vertical bars, brown-blue laterally, silvery white underbelly, upper jaw elongated in a form of a spear, first dorsal fin greatly enlarged in the form of a sail and the membrane blue black with numerous dark spots, its front squared off, highest at its midpoint, pelvic fins very narrow, reaching almost to the anus, with 1 spine and 2 rays, body covered with embedded scales with 1 or 2 blunt points blunt at end, lateral line curved above pectoral fin, then straight to base of tail. 

Diet
Anchovies, Bullet Tuna, Frigate Tuna, Mahi-mahi, Pompano dolphinfish, pufferfish, boxfish, sardines, ribbonfish, Conger conger, Brazilian Sardinella, blue runner, flying fish, Porcupinefish, Bigeye scad, Dussumier's halfbeak, Rabbitfish or spinefoots, Round scad, squid, octopi, Indo Pacific Sailfish are opportunistic predators 

Edible 

Utilized fresh, smoked and frozen, also used for sashimi and sushi, eaten broiled and baked.
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Name
The striped marlin, Tetrapturus audax, is a species of marlin found in tropical to temperate Indo-Pacific oceans not far from the surface. It is a large commercial game fish with a record weight (at 1982) of 190 kg, and a maximum length of 420 cm. The striped marlin is a predator that hunts during the day from close to the surface to about 100 metres or so.  

Appearance 
No dorsal spines, Dorsal soft rays 42-48, No anal spines, Anal soft rays 18 - 24. Body elongated and compressed, medium sized beak on the upper jaw, two dorsal fins, the height of the first progressively downsizing to the second, short anteriorly, taller in the middle, then becoming shorter posteriorly, pectoral fins falcate and flexible with 18 to 22 rays, body densely covered by small embedded scales with 1 or 2 bluntish points, back dark blue, belly silvery, membrane of first dorsal fin blue black without dark spots, flanks with about 20 bluish stripes. Blue-black above and silvery white below, with about 15 rows of cobalt-colored stripes, 1st dorsal fin dark blue, other fins dark brown sometimes with a tinge of dark blue, anal fin bases with a tinge of silvery white. One of the most interesting things about the striped marlin is that it can actually change colors. When a marlin gets excited, usually while feeding or courting, its stripes may light up from regular blue to a phosphorescent blue or lavender. After a marlin dies, it also develops conspicuous stripes along the sides of its body.

Location
Amer Samoa, Andaman Is, Angola, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Chagos Is, Chile, Christmas I. Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Fiji, Fr Polynesia, Galapagos Is, Guam, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Indonesia,Iran, Japan, Kenya, Kermadec Is, Kiribati, Korea Rep, Kuril Is, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marquesas Is, Marshall Is, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Mozambique, Myanmar, N Marianas, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua N Guin, Peru, Philippines, Reunion, Ryukyu Is, Samoa, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Is, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tahiti, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuamotu Is, Tuvalu, USA, Vanuatu, Viet Nam, Wake I. Yemen,

Habitat
Epipelagic and oceanic species, usually found above the thermocline. Generally inhabit Subtropical 20°C - 25°C waters. Most dominant and widely distributed of all billfishes. Their abundance increases with distance from the continental shelf. Usually seen close to shore only where deep drop-offs occur. Mostly solitary, but forms small schools by size during the spawning season

Spawning grounds/seasons
Spawning occurs in Indonesia from January to February located around the Banda and Timor SeasMarch and May in the Bay of Bengal SeaMay to June in the Eastern Pacific OceanOctober to December in the Northeastern Indian OceanSeptember only in Australia located around Southern Coral SeaNovember to December in Southwest Pacific OceanDecember to January in the Western Indian Ocean and May to June in the Western North Pacific Ocean

Reproduction
Dioecism as in males and females are separated by gender,external fertilization , non guarders of their eggs, open water/substratum egg scatterers, Larvae are most abundant in the respective local early summers. The seasonal occurrence of mature females coincides with that of the larvae. The lower temperature limit in the distribution of larvae is approximately 24°C, both in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Spawning sites are between 10°S and 30°S in Southwest Pacific and 10°S and 20°S in northeastern Indian Ocean.

Diet
Snouted lancetfish, Australian salmon, Bullet tuna, Pacific and Atlantic saury also known by the name mackerel pike, anchovies, cornetfish, Snake mackerel , Veined Squid , Cape Hope Squid or Chokka , European Squid , Wellington flying squid , argonauts , White trevally , blue pilchard,Australian pilchard, blue-bait, Californian pilchard, Chilean sardine, Japanese pilchard, Pacific sardine, and Southern African pilchard. chub mackerel , Pacific jack mackerel 

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Name
The shortbill spearfish (Tetrapturus angustirostris) is a species of marlin native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans with occasional records from the Atlantic Ocean. Shortbill spearfish are commonly known as Hebi in Hawaii.

Appearance
Two important characters are shared by belone (Mediterranean Spearfish) and angustirostris (shortbill spearfish) and in these characters they differ from all their allies: 1) A high dorsal spine count; 50 (above) .2) An anteriorly placed anus; distance from anus to the origin of the anal fin 7.6-11% of body length in belone and 9.6% in angustirostris. The flattened profile from the spinous dorsal to the bill tip and the lack of spots in the dorsal fin are additional characters that are probably important. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 51-57; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 18 - 23. Dark blue above, blue splattered with brown on the sides, silvery white below; 1st dorsal fin plain dark blue, other fins brown or dark brown; anal fin bases with tinges of silvery white. This species can reach a length of 230 cm (91 in), though most do not exceed 190 cm (75 in). The maximum recorded weight for this species is 52 kg


Location
Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Bangladesh, Chagos Is. China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (South), Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Is. Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, USA, American Samoa, Australia, Cook Is. Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kermadec Is. Marshall Is. Micronesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, North Marianas, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Wake I. Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.

Habitat
Indian and Pacific: tropical and temperate waters. Although some stray individuals are found in the Atlantic Ocean, this species is believed to have its spawning grounds and principal populations only in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Highly migratory species, Oceanic and epipelagic, found above the thermocline .

Spawning Season/Location
Spawning is believed to occur mainly during the winter months, especially in warm offshore currents with surface temperature of about 25°C.

Reproduction
Fertilization is external open water substratum egg scatterers and are non guarders of their young 

Diet
Lancetfish, Bullet tuna , Frigate tuna, Skipjack tuna , Pomfret, Flying fish , Snake mackerels or escolars. Butterfishes, squids and cuttlefishes 

Predators
Shortbill spearfish of 30 to 40 pounds (14 to 18 kg) have been recorded as feed items by Kona blue marlin fishermen, Tunas have been known to eat juveniles and larvae of shortbill spearfish

Edible 
Hebi (Shortbill Spearfish) has white to pink colored flesh that is somewhat softer than that of Nairagi (White Marlin) or Kajiki (Blue Marlin). Its flavor is mild (although more pronounced than ahi(Tuna). It is one of several species of billfish, which are suitable for grilled or broiled “catch of the day” menu items in restaurants around Hawaii.
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Name
The Mediterranean spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) or is a species of marlin native to the Mediterranean Sea where it is particularly common around Italy.

Appearance
Two important characters are shared by belone and angustirostris and in these characters they differ from all their allies: 1) A high dorsal spine count; 50 (above) .2) An anteriorly placed anus; distance from anus to the origin of the anal fin 7.6-11% of body length in belone and 9.6% in angustirostris. The flattened profile from the spinal dorsal to the bill tip and the lack of spots in the dorsal fin are additional characters that are probably important. Colour dark blue on dorsal side and silvery white laterally and ventrally , no rows of vertical bars or spots on body , first dorsal fin membrane blue black and no spots , remaining fins brown to black .Elongated and much compressed body, covered with densely embedded scales ending in 3-5 posterior points. Upper jaw prolonged into a slender spear, short in length about 18% of body length, round in cross section. Head profile (nape) between pre orbital region and origin of first dorsal fin nearly straight. First dorsal fin long and rather high throughout its length, height of anterior part slightly greater than body depth. Pelvic fins slightly shorter than twice the pectoral fin length. Tips of first dorsal and first anal fins rounded. Pectoral fin narrow and short. Caudal peduncle with double keels on each side, with a caudal notch on the dorsal and ventral surface. Two separated anal fins, first anal 11-15 rays, and second anal fin with 6-7 rays.  Dorsal spines: 39-46 rays in first fin, 5-7 rays in second fin. Single lateral line visible, curved above pectoral fin, then straight towards tail. Anal opening far forward, located at distance from origin of first dorsal equal to height of longest anal fin ray. Vertebrae: 12 precaudal plus 12 caudal. No gillrakers, jaws and palatines with small teeth in adults. This species can reach a length of 240 centimetres (94 in) Total Length. The heaviest recorded specimen weighed in at 70 kilograms (150 lb
Location
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Cyprus, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Albania, Bosnia Herzegov. Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, 

Habitat
It is an open-water fish, being found within 200 metres (660 ft) off the surface.

Spawning Season/Location
Mediterranean spearfish are batch spawners, shedding batches of hydrated oocytes, in separate spawning events, most likely directly into the sea where fertilization occurs. Spawning appears to occur within the Mediterranean Sea. Spawning success has been identified in the Strait of Messina (Sicily) from reported eggs and larvae collected in the plankton. It has been suggested that Mediterranean spearfish probably spawns in late spring, based on the occurrence of eggs and larvae recorded in May, and juveniles found in October. 

Reproduction
Eggs are pelagic, spherical and transparent; ovulated eggs are on average 1.48 mm in diameter and contained an oil globule. This species is of minor importance to commercial fisheries. Marine Biologists estimate that this species matures at 2-years and has a lifespan of only 5-years.

Diet
Garfish ,Pilot fish, Atlantic saury, traces of dorado/dolphin fish ,Needle fish , Herrings, Shads, Sardines, Hilsa, and Menhadens, Inkfish , Blanket octopus ,Southern shortfin squid or Broadtail shortfin squid.

Edible
This species is highly exposed to lipophilic xenobiotic contaminants, meaning from my understandings, means its very susceptible to pollutants, the pollutants can stay or cause defects (weaken) the fish , much like antibiotics, the elements is not produced within the body and are placed there in a man made way, thus results in an embryo with the elements(contaminant) attached to it, and much like an oysters the body protects its self by releasing hormones continuously in till detoxification occurs , The body removes xenobiotics by xenobiotic metabolism. This consists of the deactivation and the excretion of xenobiotics, and happens mostly in the liver, Excretion routes are urine, feces, breath, and sweat. Organisms can also evolve to tolerate xenobiotics. An example is the co-evolution of the production of tetrodotoxin in the rough-skinned newt and the evolution of tetrodotoxin resistance in its predator, the common garter snake. since one of the fishes the spearfish prey on mainly the Lancet fish, which is the predator of the pufferfish, maybe we see tetrodotoxin resistance here ? are most likely found in oxygenated rich waters 

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Name
The Roundscale spearfish (Tetrapturus georgii) or "hatchet marlin", long thought to be a variant of the white marlin distinguished by dorsal and anal fins with a chopped-off rather than rounded appearance, has recently been confirmed as a separate species in the Tetrapturus genus, the Roundscale spearfish. Nearly indistinguishable from white marlin
Appearance
Roundscale spearfish are found in both the eastern and western Atlantic. They bear an uncanny resemblance to white marlin, but can be distinguished by their longer branchiostegals and the position of the anus which is located four to six inches forward of the anal fin. This later characteristic separates the spearfishes from all other billfish. The body oblong, compressed laterally, minute teeth in bands on jaw and palatines. the first dorsal fin low, but its anterior part inform of high lobe, height being almost equal to the body depth, second dorsal fin with 7 rays, first anal fin with 12 to 15 spiny rays ,second anal fin with 6 to 7 soft rays located under second dorsal fin and similar to it in shape, pelvic fins consist of single spine and 1 or 2 soft rays ,which are relatively shorter in adults than in young , Origin of second anal fin infront of 2nd dorsal fin vertically. Colouration of live animals have been difficult to determine, overall body colour ,blue black dorsally, brown laterally and silver white ventrally. specimens can be extremely colourful, where approximately 18-20 light blue stripes dorsally and approximately 17 silvery white lateral stripes generally originating underneath or associated with the dorsal stripes, lateral stripes fade into a silvery white ventral portion of the body, the first and second dorsal fins medium dark blue but without the distinct spotting, the first anal fin silvery white at the origin to the body darkened distally to a blue colour, the second anal fin was silvery white with a dusky posterior margin , the pectoral fins were blue black with some areas of lighter blue. This species can reach a length of 184 centimetres (72 in) and the heaviest recorded fish weighed in at 21.5 kilograms (47 lb).

Location
Algeria, Canary Is. Madeira Is. Morocco, Tunisia, West Sahara, Gibraltar, Italy, Portugal, native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Portugal to Madeira, the Canary Islands to northern Africa and the western Mediterranean Sea to Sicily.

Habitat
It is suspected that it may be more widespread. It is believed to inhabit open waters

Spawning Season/Location
no known evidance of reproduction occuring in waters 

Reproduction
Fertilization is external open water substratum egg scatterers and are non guarders of their young

Diet
Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, little is known of this species diet - one can expect its the same as Marlin 
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Name
The longbill spearfish (Tetrapturus pfluegeri) is a species of marlin 

Appearance
The pectoral fins of the shortbill and Mediterranean spearfishes barely reach to the curve of the lateral line. In the longbill spearfish they extend beyond the curve. The longbill spearfish has more elements (45 to 53) in the first dorsal fin than any other Atlantic billfish. The shortbill spearfish of the Pacific has approximately the same count (47 50 elements), but the Mediterranean spearfish has fewer (39 46). The lateral line is single and arches above the pectoral fins. This species can reach a length of 254 centimetres (100 in) FL and the maximum weight recorded is 58 kilograms (128 lb). First dorsal fin long and pointed at anterior part ,high throughout its length, first anal fin tip pointed and anal opening about the heights length of the anal fin infront of anal fin , lateral scales narrow with multiple points, sometimes shows rows of stripes, gonads asymmetrical 

Location
native to the Atlantic Ocean where it is found above the thermocline in open waters

Habitat
Oceanic and epipelagic, found above the thermocline .

Spawning Season/Location
They spawn once a year. Season or location is unknown

Reproduction
Fertilization is external open water substratum egg scatterers and are non guarders of their young

Diet
it feeds on pelagic fishes such as needlefish, tuna, and jack, as well as squids.






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