Sunday, 11 October 2015

Wolf Herring


Name
The dorab wolf-herring, blackfin wolf herring, Ikan Parang, Chirocentrus dorab is a fish species from the Chirocentrus genus of the Chirocentridae family. Chirocentrus is from the Greek cheir meaning hand and kentron meaning sting. Dorab is from the Arabic language word darrab (ضرّاب) and the word is probably a corrupted form of durubb (دُرُبّ) the name for goldfish in Arabic. It has another Arabic name, lisan (لسان) [4] which means tongue.

Appearance
Blackfin wolf-herrings are narrow elongated fish, so named for the black markings on the upper part of the dorsal fin and the wolf-like canines protruding from their mandible and premaxilla. These black markings set this species apart from its closest relative Chirocentrus nudus, whitefin wolf-herrings. The wide mandible of blackfin wolf-herrings appears to point almost directly upward when their mouth is closed. Members of the family Chirocentridae have been characterized as long herrings. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0. Scales numerous, small, usually lost. Silvery; back bright blue (fading to grey); flanks bright silver. The slightly shorter pectoral fin and the black marking of the upper part of the dorsal fin are the only satisfactory characters separating this species from the white fin wolf herring, Fins spineless; with numerous dagger-like teeth. Samples of both the species were collected in Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar around the Rameswaram Island from July 1968 to June 1969. Altogether 436 fish (Black fin wolf herrings) of lengths ranged 225-712 mm were examined. Out of them 83 males and 353 females in the length ranges of 225-712 mm. The specimens were measured for length to the caudal fork (in mm), weighed (in grams) and sex examined in the fresh state. 

Location
Indo-Pacific: probably throughout the warmer coastal waters, from the Red Sea and East Africa to the Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Recently reported from Tonga, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mozambique, Rodriguez, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Andaman Is. Bahrain,Bangladesh, Brunei Darsm, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Korea (South), Kuwait, Macau, Malaysia, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Ryukyu Is. Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, United Arab Em. Viet Nam, Yemen, Australia, Fiji, New Caledonia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Is. Tonga, Vanuatu,

Habitat
Blackfin wolf-herrings prefer warm coastal waters, often in inland areas. They inhabit brackish and marine waters up to depths of 120 m. This species, however, is most commonly found in turbulent waters at depths from 9 to 28 m. frequenting coral reefs, which are potential hunting grounds, Unlike most herring fishes, blackfin wolf-herrings are often found in small groups rather than large schools. However, schooling maybe more prevalent in this species during its larval stage to avoid predation. It is a coastal fish, found in marine, brackish and estuarine waters

Spawning Season/Area
Intra-ovarian eggs of blackfin wolf-herrings reach maturity at 50 to 65 millidarcies (measurement of permeability) and are then released by the female. hatched larvae are tubular eel like and have a duck bill shaped head , species caught during March were commonly caught in the 40-50 cm range between 90gram-3kg, Males typically mature at smaller sizes than females. The growth rate remains constant in males until they reach 30 cm and in females until they reach 40 cm, after which there is a marked decline in growth rate.


Diet
As a carnivorous fish, blackfin wolf-herrings prey mainly on other members of the order Clupeiformes, as well as members of the class Cephalopoda (octopus and squid). Sardines, however, are preferred prey of this species, particularly white sardinella and goldstripe sardinella. Juveniles also display this carnivorous behavior, feeding on small shrimp, post-larvae, and early juvenile fish. The diet of blackfin wolf-herrings is seasonally consistent. As they feed primarily during the day. feeding on smaller fish and possibly crustaceans. they feed on blue sprat, also known as the delicate round herring or blueback sprat, contents found in stomachs also contained snapper, blennie, surgeon fish, and Baelama anchovy


Method of catching 
Lures , trolling , live bait , side note -have noticed in jigging videos that the lure is almost always hit on the head of the lure this nature could be due to the baitfish around in that area , one particularly of a spiny nature (scads?) when catching fish with bony jaws its highly likely that using a single hook rather than a treble hook will increase your catch rates, notes taken from a tiger fisherman 
Edible
They also act as host to marine leeches, Nerocila phaiopleura, which attach at the branchial/shoulder region of a host fish. Leeches do not cause harm to the fish while feeding. As the leech releases from its host, however, it leaves small skin lesions at its point of attachment. These lesions allow easy access for pathogenic microbes and infections like vibriosis. Vibriosis is an infection caused by a group of bacteria from the genus g. Vibrio. commercially fished, and marketed fresh or frozen

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Name
Whitefin wolf-herring, or Ikan Parang in Malaysian, Chirocentrus nudus is a fish species from the Chirocentrus genus of the Chirocentridae family, Chirocentrus is from the Greek cheir meaning hand and kentron meaning sting. Dorab is from the Arabic language word darrab (ضرّاب) and the word is probably a corrupted form of durubb (دُرُبّ) the name for goldfish in Arabic. It has another Arabic name, lisan (لسان) [4] which means tongue.

Appearance
Samples of both the species were collected in Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar around the Rameswaram Island from July 1968 to June 1969. Altogether 727 fish Whitefin wolf herrings of lengths ranged 153-832 mm were examined. Out of them 84 males and 314 females in the length ranges of 205-560 mm respectively were from the Palk Bay; and 120 males and 209 females in the length range of 238-560 mm and 350-832 mm respectively were from the Gulf of Mannar. The specimens were measured for length to the caudal fork (in mm), weighed (in gm) and sex examined the in fresh state.

Location
Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mayotte, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Andaman Is. Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei Darsm, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Macau, Malaysia, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, United Arab Em. Viet Nam, Yemen, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Is.
Habitat
Marine - Neritic ,saltwater brackish water, some cases of freshwater occurrences, The neritic zone is the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately 200m in depth. shares same habitat as the black fin wolf herring 

Spawning ground/Season 
Spawning shown in Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar around the Rameswaram Island for four years. The two species differ from each other in some respects and resemble each other in some other. Each species, too, shows differences in some aspects between the two localities. Generally, spawning season of C. nudus (White fin wolf herring) extends from February to July, intensive spawning taking place during April-June /July each year. the species caught during March exhibited ranges of 50cm to 1 kg

Diet
This species is also known to eat crabs in addition to its usual diet of smaller fish. anchovies , herring and, highly likely to share same eating habits as the black fin wolf herring 

Edible
In the South east coast of India this fish is prevalent to a host parasite during monsoon season resulting in a less than appealing flesh, commercially fished, and marketed fresh or frozen considered low cholesterol fish 40mg% cholesterol per 1kg

Method of catching 
Lures, live baits, trolling, fish that have bony jaws are better caught with single hooks over treble hooks ,as shown in the video, the fish sought after the head of the lure much like how yellowtail kingfish do when taking scads as bait due to the sickle spine on their backs, possibly one of the prey items of the wolf herring 

Saturday, 10 October 2015

Spearfish


Name
The shortbill spearfish (Tetrapturus angustirostris) is a species of marlin native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans with occasional records from the Atlantic Ocean. Shortbill spearfish are commonly known as Hebi in Hawaii.

Appearance
Two important characters are shared by belone (Mediterranean Spearfish) and angustirostris (shortbill spearfish) and in these characters they differ from all their allies: 1) A high dorsal spine count; 50 (above) .2) An anteriorly placed anus; distance from anus to the origin of the anal fin 7.6-11% of body length in belone and 9.6% in angustirostris. The flattened profile from the spinous dorsal to the bill tip and the lack of spots in the dorsal fin are additional characters that are probably important. Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 51-57; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 18 - 23. Dark blue above, blue splattered with brown on the sides, silvery white below; 1st dorsal fin plain dark blue, other fins brown or dark brown; anal fin bases with tinges of silvery white. This species can reach a length of 230 cm (91 in), though most do not exceed 190 cm (75 in). The maximum recorded weight for this species is 52 kg


Location
Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Bangladesh, Chagos Is. China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (South), Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Is. Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, USA, American Samoa, Australia, Cook Is. Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kermadec Is. Marshall Is. Micronesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, North Marianas, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Wake I. Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.

Habitat
Indian and Pacific: tropical and temperate waters. Although some stray individuals are found in the Atlantic Ocean, this species is believed to have its spawning grounds and principal populations only in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Highly migratory species, Oceanic and epipelagic, found above the thermocline .

Spawning Season/Location
Spawning is believed to occur mainly during the winter months, especially in warm offshore currents with surface temperature of about 25°C.

Reproduction
Fertilization is external open water substratum egg scatterers and are non guarders of their young 

Diet
Lancetfish, Bullet tuna , Frigate tuna, Skipjack tuna , Pomfret, Flying fish , Snake mackerels or escolars. Butterfishes, squids and cuttlefishes 

Predators
Shortbill spearfish of 30 to 40 pounds (14 to 18 kg) have been recorded as feed items by Kona blue marlin fishermen, Tunas have been known to eat juveniles and larvae of shortbill spearfish

Edible 
Hebi (Shortbill Spearfish) has white to pink colored flesh that is somewhat softer than that of Nairagi (White Marlin) or Kajiki (Blue Marlin). Its flavor is mild (although more pronounced than ahi(Tuna). It is one of several species of billfish, which are suitable for grilled or broiled “catch of the day” menu items in restaurants around Hawaii.
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Name
The Mediterranean spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) or is a species of marlin native to the Mediterranean Sea where it is particularly common around Italy.

Appearance
Two important characters are shared by belone and angustirostris and in these characters they differ from all their allies: 1) A high dorsal spine count; 50 (above) .2) An anteriorly placed anus; distance from anus to the origin of the anal fin 7.6-11% of body length in belone and 9.6% in angustirostris. The flattened profile from the spinal dorsal to the bill tip and the lack of spots in the dorsal fin are additional characters that are probably important. Colour dark blue on dorsal side and silvery white laterally and ventrally , no rows of vertical bars or spots on body , first dorsal fin membrane blue black and no spots , remaining fins brown to black .Elongated and much compressed body, covered with densely embedded scales ending in 3-5 posterior points. Upper jaw prolonged into a slender spear, short in length about 18% of body length, round in cross section. Head profile (nape) between pre orbital region and origin of first dorsal fin nearly straight. First dorsal fin long and rather high throughout its length, height of anterior part slightly greater than body depth. Pelvic fins slightly shorter than twice the pectoral fin length. Tips of first dorsal and first anal fins rounded. Pectoral fin narrow and short. Caudal peduncle with double keels on each side, with a caudal notch on the dorsal and ventral surface. Two separated anal fins, first anal 11-15 rays, and second anal fin with 6-7 rays.  Dorsal spines: 39-46 rays in first fin, 5-7 rays in second fin. Single lateral line visible, curved above pectoral fin, then straight towards tail. Anal opening far forward, located at distance from origin of first dorsal equal to height of longest anal fin ray. Vertebrae: 12 precaudal plus 12 caudal. No gillrakers, jaws and palatines with small teeth in adults. This species can reach a length of 240 centimetres (94 in) Total Length. The heaviest recorded specimen weighed in at 70 kilograms (150 lb
Location
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Cyprus, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Albania, Bosnia Herzegov. Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, 

Habitat
It is an open-water fish, being found within 200 metres (660 ft) off the surface.

Spawning Season/Location
Mediterranean spearfish are batch spawners, shedding batches of hydrated oocytes, in separate spawning events, most likely directly into the sea where fertilization occurs. Spawning appears to occur within the Mediterranean Sea. Spawning success has been identified in the Strait of Messina (Sicily) from reported eggs and larvae collected in the plankton. It has been suggested that Mediterranean spearfish probably spawns in late spring, based on the occurrence of eggs and larvae recorded in May, and juveniles found in October. 

Reproduction
Eggs are pelagic, spherical and transparent; ovulated eggs are on average 1.48 mm in diameter and contained an oil globule. This species is of minor importance to commercial fisheries. Marine Biologists estimate that this species matures at 2-years and has a lifespan of only 5-years.

Diet
Garfish ,Pilot fish, Atlantic saury, traces of dorado/dolphin fish ,Needle fish , Herrings, Shads, Sardines, Hilsa, and Menhadens, Inkfish , Blanket octopus ,Southern shortfin squid or Broadtail shortfin squid.

Edible
This species is highly exposed to lipophilic xenobiotic contaminants, meaning from my understandings, means its very susceptible to pollutants, the pollutants can stay or cause defects (weaken) the fish , much like antibiotics, the elements is not produced within the body and are placed there in a man made way, thus results in an embryo with the elements(contaminant) attached to it, and much like an oysters the body protects its self by releasing hormones continuously in till detoxification occurs , The body removes xenobiotics by xenobiotic metabolism. This consists of the deactivation and the excretion of xenobiotics, and happens mostly in the liver, Excretion routes are urine, feces, breath, and sweat. Organisms can also evolve to tolerate xenobiotics. An example is the co-evolution of the production of tetrodotoxin in the rough-skinned newt and the evolution of tetrodotoxin resistance in its predator, the common garter snake. since one of the fishes the spearfish prey on mainly the Lancet fish, which is the predator of the pufferfish, maybe we see tetrodotoxin resistance here ? are most likely found in oxygenated rich waters 

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Name
The Roundscale spearfish (Tetrapturus georgii) or "hatchet marlin", long thought to be a variant of the white marlin distinguished by dorsal and anal fins with a chopped-off rather than rounded appearance, has recently been confirmed as a separate species in the Tetrapturus genus, the Roundscale spearfish. Nearly indistinguishable from white marlin
Appearance
Roundscale spearfish are found in both the eastern and western Atlantic. They bear an uncanny resemblance to white marlin, but can be distinguished by their longer branchiostegals and the position of the anus which is located four to six inches forward of the anal fin. This later characteristic separates the spearfishes from all other billfish. The body oblong, compressed laterally, minute teeth in bands on jaw and palatines. the first dorsal fin low, but its anterior part inform of high lobe, height being almost equal to the body depth, second dorsal fin with 7 rays, first anal fin with 12 to 15 spiny rays ,second anal fin with 6 to 7 soft rays located under second dorsal fin and similar to it in shape, pelvic fins consist of single spine and 1 or 2 soft rays ,which are relatively shorter in adults than in young , Origin of second anal fin infront of 2nd dorsal fin vertically. Colouration of live animals have been difficult to determine, overall body colour ,blue black dorsally, brown laterally and silver white ventrally. specimens can be extremely colourful, where approximately 18-20 light blue stripes dorsally and approximately 17 silvery white lateral stripes generally originating underneath or associated with the dorsal stripes, lateral stripes fade into a silvery white ventral portion of the body, the first and second dorsal fins medium dark blue but without the distinct spotting, the first anal fin silvery white at the origin to the body darkened distally to a blue colour, the second anal fin was silvery white with a dusky posterior margin , the pectoral fins were blue black with some areas of lighter blue. This species can reach a length of 184 centimetres (72 in) and the heaviest recorded fish weighed in at 21.5 kilograms (47 lb).

Location
Algeria, Canary Is. Madeira Is. Morocco, Tunisia, West Sahara, Gibraltar, Italy, Portugal, native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Portugal to Madeira, the Canary Islands to northern Africa and the western Mediterranean Sea to Sicily.

Habitat
It is suspected that it may be more widespread. It is believed to inhabit open waters

Spawning Season/Location
no known evidance of reproduction occuring in waters 

Reproduction
Fertilization is external open water substratum egg scatterers and are non guarders of their young

Diet
Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, little is known of this species diet - one can expect its the same as Marlin 
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Name
The longbill spearfish (Tetrapturus pfluegeri) is a species of marlin 

Appearance
The pectoral fins of the shortbill and Mediterranean spearfishes barely reach to the curve of the lateral line. In the longbill spearfish they extend beyond the curve. The longbill spearfish has more elements (45 to 53) in the first dorsal fin than any other Atlantic billfish. The shortbill spearfish of the Pacific has approximately the same count (47 50 elements), but the Mediterranean spearfish has fewer (39 46). The lateral line is single and arches above the pectoral fins. This species can reach a length of 254 centimetres (100 in) FL and the maximum weight recorded is 58 kilograms (128 lb). First dorsal fin long and pointed at anterior part ,high throughout its length, first anal fin tip pointed and anal opening about the heights length of the anal fin infront of anal fin , lateral scales narrow with multiple points, sometimes shows rows of stripes, gonads asymmetrical

Location
native to the Atlantic Ocean where it is found above the thermocline in open waters

Habitat
Oceanic and epipelagic, found above the thermocline .

Spawning Season/Location
They spawn once a year. Season or location is unknown

Reproduction
Fertilization is external open water substratum egg scatterers and are non guarders of their young

Diet
it feeds on pelagic fishes such as needlefish, tuna, and jack, as well as squids.






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Conclusions
All spearfish examine a scale with pointed ends
all anal fin heights are proportional to anal opening either by more than half the height
slender bodies except in roundscale spearfish slightly identical to white marlin
shorter bills proportionate to true Marlin figures