Monday, 4 August 2014

Mutton snapper



Name

The mutton snapper, Lutjanus analis, is a species of snapper native to the Atlantic coastal waters of the Americas from Massachusetts to southern Brazil, including the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. They are particularly common in the Caribbean.

Location
Anguilla, Antigua Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Cayman Is. Cuba CUB, Curaçao I. Dominica, Dominican Rp, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Montserrat, Neth Antilles, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, St Kitts Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent Gren. Trinidad Tobago, Turks Caicos Is. USA, Virgin Is. (UK), Virgin Is. (US), Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela,

Habitat
They inhabit reef environments, with adults found in areas with rock or coral, while juveniles occur in sandy habitats with plentiful weed growth. They can be found at depths of from 25 to 90 m (82 to 295 ft), though most often between 40 and 70 m (130 and 230 ft). Mutton snapper, especially adults, tend to be solitary, but can be seen in smaller schools Adults occur in continental shelf areas as well as clear waters around islands. Large adults usually among rocks and coral while juveniles occur over sandy, vegetated bottoms. They form small aggregations which disband during the night. Feed both day and night.

Appearance
Dorsal spines: 10-11; Dorsal soft rays: 13-14; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 7 - 8. Preopercular notch and knob weak. Pectoral fins are long, reaching level of anus. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Back and upper sides olive green, whitish with a red tinge on lower sides and belly. A black spot is on the upper back just above the lateral line and below the anterior dorsal fin rays. A pair of blue stripes runs on the snout-cheek region, the upper continuing behind eye to upper edge of gill. This species can reach a length of 94 cm (37 in).

Diet
Starfish, Eels, bony fish, crabs, Lumpy/Smooth Box crab, New Zealand half crab, Blue swimming crab, Ocellate Swimming Crab, Surgeon fish, Porcupine fish, Cornet fish, Grunts, Squirrel fish, Sardines, Sand Tile fish, File fish, Goat fish, Parrot fish, Scorpion fish, Lionfish, Squid, Cuttlefish, Breams and Porgies.

Method of catching
They can be caught on a variety of baits, but are most commonly caught on live or frozen shrimp, whole or cut squid, minnows, and smaller bait fish (such as live or dead pinfish). Mutton snapper have been caught on artificial baits, but seem to prefer live bait.

Edible
Their flesh is considered by most as excellent table fare. Like most of the snapper family, the meat is white, flaky, and light, and is excellent prepared in a variety of ways.

Spawning Season/grounds
Only three records have been made on spawning season , In Cuba they spawn from March to September, Northeastern Caribbean during February and Northeastern Venezuela from May to October.

Friday, 11 July 2014

Atlantic tarpon/Silver King/Cuffum fish/Madzorfloe/Indo Pacific tarpon/oxeye/


Name
The Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) also known as the silver king, Cuffum fish, Madzorfloe, 

Location
Angola, Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, Azores Is. Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Br Virgin Is. Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, Canary Is. Cape Verde, Cayman Is. Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Curaçao I. Dominica, Dominican Rp, Eq Guinea, Fr Guiana, France, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, GuineaBissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Liberia, Madeira Is. Martinique, Mauritania, Mexico, Montserrat, NethAntilles, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Spain, St Kitts, St Vincent, Suriname, Togo, Trinidad, Turks Caicos, UK, UK No Ireld, US Virgin Is. USA, Venezuela

Habitat
Inhabits coastal waters, estuaries, lagoons, rivers, brackish seas, mangroves, river mouths and bays, entering freshwater, coastal structures. Tarpons prefer water temperatures of 72 to 82°F (22°C to 27°C), below 60°F (16°C) they become inactive, and temperatures under 40°F (4°C) can be lethal

Appearance
No dorsal spines , between 13-16 dorsal soft rays, no anal spines, 22 - 25 anal soft rays, dorsal fin with short base at mid length of the body. Anal fin with longer base, the level of the dorsal fin normally equal to that of the origin of lower end. Pectorals origin very low. Scales of the lateral line have branched out tubes. Blue gray back, shiny silvery sides. Swim bladder attached to gullet and can be filled directly with air, this feature enables this species to live in oxygen-poor waters, between 37-42 scales in lateral line area, last ray extended as heavy filament. In appearance, a tarpon is greenish or bluish on top and silver on the sides. The large mouth is turned upwards and the lower jaw contains an elongated, bony plate. The last ray of the dorsal fin is much longer than the others, reaching nearly to the tail. 

Diet 
The tarpon feeds almost exclusively on schooling fish ,Silver sides, mullet, anchovies, herring and occasionally crabs, prawns and shrimp 

Method of Catching 
Hook set is difficult due to the hard mouth of the fish, which has been likened to the hardness of concrete, so many tarpons throw the hook on the first few jump, artificial lures, mimic's, salt water flies and live bait are the favoured techniques, normally very skittish towards shadows and water disturbances around them, depending on the moon phase, tide and time 

Edible
The flesh is undesirable, bony and cases of ciguatera poisoning have been reported from this fish 

Spawning ground/seasons
Spawns at sea, larvae migrate inland and are leptocephalic (flattened, transparent and eel-like) April to march,Colombia Caribbean Coast, June to August USA Eastern Gulf of Mexico Florida, June to August Gulf of Mexico Yucatan Channel, spawns at sea, Scientific studies indicate schools have routinely migrated through the Panama Canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific and back for over 70 years

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Name
The Indo-Pacific tarpon or oxeye (Megalops cyprinoides)

Location
Amer Samoa, Andaman Is. Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China Main, Djibouti, East Timor, Egypt,n Eritrea, Fiji, Fr Polynesia, Guam, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Korea Rep, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Micronesia, Mozambique, Myanmar, N Marianas, New Caledonia, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Papua N Guin, Philippines, Reunion, Rodriguez, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zimbabwe

Habitat
The Indo-Pacific tarpon migrates between the open sea and inland rivers, inhabits tropical coastal and brackish waters of the Indo-Pacific oceans, Sea, Bay, Gulf, River Basins, Lakes, Lagoons, Commonly found all year round in the eastern waters around Australia, Ethiopia, Asia, 

Appearance
No dorsal spines, 16-21 dorsal soft rays, no anal spines, 23 - 31 anal soft rays. Lower jaw projects beyond snout; a bony gular plate present between the jaw bones. Last fin ray of dorsal long and has a filamentous tip, ventrally located pectoral fins, abdominal pelvic fins with 9 or more rays. Color blue-green dorsally; silvery on sides. Can tolerate oxygen-poor water by `breathing' air into a lung-like air bladder.like the Megalops atlanticus, olive-green on top, silvery on the sides. The large mouth is turned upwards, the lower jaw contains an elongated, bony plate. The last ray of the dorsal fin is much longer than the others, reaching nearly to the tail.


Diet
Adults are strictly carnivorous and feed on midwater prey; swallowing their food whole they hunt nocturnally, flies insects (freshwater), stink bugs (freshwater), dragon flies (freshwater), termites (freshwater), freshwater shrimp.

Method of Catching
artificial lures, salt water flies, live bait ,dead bait (night fishing) generally takes bait on the way down when using a weight 

Edible
Edible but disliked 

Spawning ground/seasons
Unlike the barramundi, they are able to breed in freshwater and saltwater. As with all Elopiformes, it spawns at sea, the larvae migrate inland and are leptocephalic (flattened, transparent and eel-like) Tarpons breed offshore in warm, isolated areas. Females have high fecundity and can lay up to 12 million eggs at once. They reach sexual maturity once they are about 75–125 cm in length.

predators
Adults occasionally fall prey to sharks, porpoises, alligators, and piscivorous birds. They are especially vulnerable to birds when they come to the surface for air, due to the rolling manner in which they move to take in air, as well as the mirror silver scales, lining catches the sunlight.